Skip to main content

Table 2 Baseline levels of CSF biomarkers and change within individuals over time

From: Cerebrospinal fluid VILIP-1 and YKL-40, candidate biomarkers to diagnose, predict and monitor Alzheimer’s disease in a memory clinic cohort

  Cognitively normal MCI AD
(n = 37) (n = 61) (n = 65)
YKL-40 (ng/ml), baseline 231 (16) 304 (16)* 288 (12)*
YKL-40 (ng/ml), follow-up 241 (18) 320 (16)* 306 (14)
 Annual change, (β (SE)) 5.3 (3.2) 8.9 (3.0) 7.1 (3.1)§
VILIP-1 (pg/ml), baseline 168 (11) 192 (13) 182 (10)
VILIP-1 (pg/ml), follow-up 175 (11) 217 (14) 190 (11)
 Annual change, (β (SE)) 2.8 (2.8) 10.7 (2.6) 3.1 (2.6)
  1. Data presented as mean (SE). At baseline, VILIP-1 data were missing for two patients and YKL-40 data for one patient; at follow-up, VILIP-1 data were missing for one patient and YKL-40 data for three patients. Baseline and follow-up differences (mean (SE) LP interval was 2.0 (0.1) years) were assessed with ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni corrections, adjusted for age and sex. CSF biomarkers were log-transformed for ANOVA analyses. Longitudinal effects were assessed using age and sex-adjusted linear mixed models, with CSF biomarkers (VILIP-1 and YKL-40) as dependent variables and clinical diagnosis (categorical), time (LP interval in years), and interaction diagnosis × time as independent variables. The reported β value represents the estimated change of YKL-40 (ng/ml) or VILIP-1 (pg/ml) levels per year
  2. * p ≤0.05 vs. cognitively normal subjects
  3. p ≤0.005 vs. cognitively normal subjects
  4. p ≤0.005 for time effect
  5. § p ≤0.05 for time effect
  6. AD Alzheimer’s disease, ANOVA analysis of variance, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, LP lumbar puncture, MCI mild cognitive impairment, SE standard error, VILIP-1 Visinin-like protein-1, YKL-40 Chitinase-3-like protein 1