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Table 1 Instruments used for instrumental activities of daily living assessment a

From: Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review


Full instrument name


IADL domains

Psychometric properties

Performance-based assessment instruments


DAFS [62]

Direct Assessment of Functional Status


6 domains: time orientation, communication, financial skills, shopping, grooming, eating

Good interrater and test–retest reliability, good evidence of discriminant and convergent validity, ceiling effects for time orientation, identify change and shopping

DOT [34]

Day-Out Task


8 tasks to prepare a day out (including packing a picnic basket, planning a bus route, gathering correct change for bus ride)

Interrater reliability: 96.92% agreement

EPT [63]

Everyday Problems Test


Problem solving related to medication use, meal preparation, telephone use, shopping, financial management, household management, transportation

Test–retest reliability: r = 0.93, internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) = 0.88. Validity: significant correlations with direct observation of older adults’ performance of everyday tasks (r = 0.67), older adults’ self-reports (r = 0.23) and dementia patients’ self-reports (r = 0.36)

FCI [64]

Financial Capacity Instrument


7 domains: basic monetary skills, financial conceptual knowledge, cash transactions, checkbook management, bank statement management, financial judgment, bill payment

For all subdomains: test–retest reliability r > 0.8, internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) > 0.8

META [53]

Management of Everyday Technology Assessment


10 technology-related items (including performing actions in a logical sequence, turning a button)

Acceptable person response validity

TFLS [65]

Texas Functional Living Scale


5 domains: time/orientation, money, communication, dressing, memory

Test–retest reliability: r = 0.93 in AD sample, test–retest reliability in control group: r = 0.52, strong correlation with MMSE scores (r = 0.92)

TIADL [66]

Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living


5 domains: shopping, finances, medication, telephone use, locating information on food labels (speed and accuracy)

Test–retest reliability: r = 0.85

UAB-DA [67]

University of Alabama at Birmingham Driving Assessment


Real-world, standardized route: lane control, gap judgment, turning, maintaining proper speed, stopping distance, signaling, obeying traffic signs, preturn and postturn position, spacing, steer steadiness, precrossing and postcrossing position, and proper scanning of driving space

Not reported


University of California San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment


5 domains: household chores, communication, finances, transportation, planning recreational activities

Test–retest reliability: r = 0.92

VAPS [52]

Virtual Action Planning Supermarket


Virtual reality supermarket, 8 parameters: total distance, total time in seconds, number of items purchased, number of correct actions, number of incorrect actions, number of pauses, combined duration of pauses, time to pay

Validity (correlations between VAPS performance and executive functions): r = −0.40 to r = −0.63

Self-report and informant-report rating instruments



Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study/Activities of Daily Living Inventory


23 items (including shopping, hobbies, personal appliances; both IADL and BADL)

Moderate to good retest reliability, floor effects for financial abilities in individuals with dementia

ADCS-MCI-ADL-18 [69]

18-item Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study/Activities of Daily Living Inventory adapted for patients with mild cognitive impairment


18 items (including shopping, hobbies, personal appliances; both IADL and BADL)

Not reported

ADCS-MCI-ADL-24 [45]

24-item Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study/Activities of Daily Living scale adapted for patients with mild cognitive impairment


24 items (original ADCS-MCI-ADL scale plus 6 MCI-specific items, including driving a car, organizing medication)

Not reported

ADL-PI [70]

Activities of Daily Living-Prevention Instrument


15 items (including completing and/or organizing activities, taking medication, using telephone, finding belongings, managing finances)

Retest reliability: from r = 0.69 to r = 0.74

Bayer-ADL [71]

Bayer Activities of Daily Living Scale


25 items (2 BADL items, 18 specific IADL items, 5 items for cognitive functions)

Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α > 0.98)

DAD [72]

Disability Assessment for Dementia


IADL part with 23 items (meal preparation, telephoning, going on an outing, finances, medication, housework, leisure) and BADL part with 17 items

Internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.96), interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95), test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.96)

DAD-6 [40]

6-item Disability Assessment for Dementia


6 items: meal preparation, telephoning, going on an outing, handling finances and correspondence, medication, leisure, housework

Not reported

DHQ [59]

Driving Habits Questionnaire


Driving difficulty in 8 different situations and driving frequency

Retest reliability: from r = 0.65 to r = 0.86 for the 8 situations

ETUQ [56]

Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire


86 items (including questions about technology at home and outside, communication)

Acceptable levels of internal scale validity, unidimensionality, and person response validity

FAQ [73]

Functional Activities Questionnaire


10 items (including finances, shopping, remembering appointments, playing games, preparing a meal, traveling, remembering appointments)

Not reported

FC-ADL [74]

Functional Capacities for Activities of Daily Living


50 statements reflecting possible IADL difficulties

Not reported

4-IADL [27]

4 IADL scale items chosen from Lawton and Brody’s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living [5]


4 items: telephone use, finances, medication, transportation

Not reported

9-IADL [58]

9-item IADL scale


9 items: medication responsibility, ability to buy food, to prepare meals, to keep the home clean, to use the telephone, to handle finances, to use public transportation, to orientate oneself outside, to visit people

Not reported


Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly


26 items (including finances, communication, memory, household appliances)

Cronbach’s α = 0.96, correlation with MMSE (r = 0.74)

KI-IADL [34]

Knowledgeable Informant report about Instrumental Activities of Daily Living


50 questions assessing 10 IADL domains: using the phone, traveling, shopping, preparing meals, household activities, conversation, organization, social functioning, medication management, financial management

Not reported

L&B IADL [5]

Lawton and Brody’s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living


8 items: shopping, grooming, medication responsibility, handling finances, mode of transportation, telephone use, food preparation, telephone use

Interrater correlation: r = 0.85

ROIL [76]

Record of Independent Living


37 items assessing 3 domains: activities, communication, behavior

Not reported

SR-IADL [77]

Self-report Instrumental Activities of Daily Living


Items include handling money, keeping appointments, planning meals (IADL performance and difficulty)

Reliability: r = 0.74

S-IADL [78]

Seoul-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living


15 items (including ability to prepare a balanced meal, remember appointments, ability to keep financial records, remember to take medication)

Good reliability and validity

SIB-R [79]

Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised


13 subscales organized into 4 adaptive behavior clusters: (1) social interaction and communication, (2) personal living, (3) community living, (4) motor skills

Self-report: internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) = 0.92, test–retest reliability: r = 0.80

Informant-report: internal consistency (Cronbach’s α) = 0.95, test–retest reliability: r = 0.84

T-ADLQ [54]

Technology–Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire


7 subscales (self-care, household care, employment and recreation, shopping and money, travel, communication, technology)

Cronbach’s α = 0.86; validity: significant correlations with the MMSE (r = −0.70)

  1. aAD, Alzheimer’s disease; ADL, Activities of daily living; BADL, Basic activities of daily living; I, Informant-report; IADL, Instrumental activities of daily living; ICC, Intraclass correlation coefficient; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; P, Performance-based; S, Self-report.