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Table 3 Statistically significant differences between healthy and RBT subjects

From: Changes in the neurochemistry of athletes with repetitive brain trauma: preliminary results using localized correlated spectroscopy

Molecule Coupling F2–F1 (ppm) Control mean volume/Cr RBT mean volume/Cr % Diff between mean and RBT Effect size
Glx-1 -CH2- CH(NH3+) 2.09–3.75 0.112 ± 0.009 0.147 ± 0.017 31 ± 18 3.11
Glx-3   2.07–3.73 0.022 ± 0.002 0.029 ± 0.004 32 ± 21 2.70
Glx-4   2.14–3.74 0.031 ± 0.002 0.042 ± 0.007 35 ± 24 2.88
Glx-6   2.45–2.01 0.018 ± 0.001 0.041 ± 0.011 77 ± 6 6.28
tCho (CH3)3-N + −CH2-CH2-OH 4.05–4.05 0.250 ± 0.071 0.413 ± 0.051 65 ± 36 3.54
Fucose region and Thr -CH(OH)-CH3 CH3-CH (F2: 4.0–4.5, F1: 1.1–1.7) 0.022 ± 0.007 0.036 + 0.011 64 ± 61 2.64
Phe -CH-(aromatic)- 7.33–7.33 0.024 ± 0.005 0.035 ± 0.008 46 ± 40 2.08
  1. Cross peak volumes were calculated relative to creatine. % Diff is the difference of the control and RBT means divided by the control mean ± the standard deviation. In bold are the proton groups that give rise to the crosspeak chemical shifts indicated in the third column.
  2. Abbreviations: Glx, crosspeaks of glutamate + glutamine; Phe, phenylalanine; RBT, repetitive brain trauma; tCho, total choline; Thr, threonine.