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Table 1 Clinical data, behavioral assessment scores and pH values

From: The monoaminergic footprint of depression and psychosis in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer’s disease

Parameter AD + D (number = 10) AD-D (number = 10) DLB + D (number = 10) CONTR (number = 10) Kruskal Wallis
Demographics and clinical data      
Age at onset dementia (years) 71.5 ± 14.0 (53–94) 79.4 ± 13.5 (50–96) 76.0 ± 5.8 (66–84) N/A P = 0.286
Age at death (years) 75.7 ± 12.3 (58–95) 83.5 ± 11.6 (59–97) 81.4 ± 4.4 (72–87) 76.5 ± 7.0 (65–87) P = 0.148
Gender, male/female (number) 6/4 7/3 7/3 5/5 χ2 = 1.173; P = 0.759
Storage time tissue at −80°C (years) 4.3 ± 3.8 (0.3-10) 4.1 ± 4.0 (0.6-10) 6.6 ± 4.3 (2–11) 8.6 ± 1.0 (7–10) P = 0.060
Postmortem delayc (hours) 3.7 ± 1.0 (2–5) 3.7 ± 0.9 (2–6) 4.2 ± 1.4 (2–6) 4.8 ± 1.6 (3–6) P = 0.384
Taking/not taking psychotropic medication (number) 5/5 7/3 6/4 4/6 χ2 = 1.125; P = 0.771
Behavioral assessment scores      
MFS total score (/10) 4.8 ± 0.9 (3–6)aa 2.3 ± 1.8 (1–5)aa 4.3 ± 1.3 (3–7) N/A P = 0.008
Behave-AD cluster A (/21) 1.4 ± 2.4 (0–6) 0.10 ± 0.3 (0–1) 0.4 ± 0.8 (0–2) N/A P = 0.401
Paranoid and delusional ideation
Behave-AD cluster B (/15) 0.8 ± 1.2 (0–3) 0.0 ± 0.0b 1.9 ± 2.2 (0–6)b N/A P = 0.033
hallucinations
Behave-AD cluster AB (/36) 2.2 ± 2.5 (0–6) 0.1 ± 0.3 (0–1)b 2.3 ± 2.3 (0–6)b N/A P = 0.041
psychosis
Behave-AD cluster C score (/9) 2.9 ± 2.8 (0–7) 0.5 ± 0.9 (0–2) 0.9 ± 1.3 (0–4) N/A P = 0.084
activity disturbances
Behave-AD cluster D score (/9) 4.5 ± 2.9 (0–9) 1.7 ± 1.9 (0–4) 1.8 ± 2.4 (0–7) N/A P = 0.052
aggressiveness
Behave-AD cluster E score (/3) 0.7 ± 0.8 (0–2) 0.1 ± 0.3 (0–1) 0.3 ± 0.7 (0–2) N/A P = 0.111
diurnal rhythm disturbances
Behave-AD cluster F score (/6) 1.9 ± 1.7 (0–4) 0.3 ± 0.7 (0–2) 1.1 ± 1.4 (0–4) N/A P = 0.052
affective disturbances
Behave-AD cluster G score (/12) 1.2 ± 2.0 (0–5) 0.0 ± 0.0 0.8 ± 1.7 (0–4) N/A P = 0.200
anxieties and phobias
Behave-AD total score (/75) 13.4 ± 8.9 (2–24)aa 2.7 ± 2.4 (0–6)aa 7.3 ± 5.3 (2–17) N/A P = 0.009
Behave-AD global score (/3) 1.7 ± 0.9 (0–3)aa 0.4 ± 0.5 (0–1)aa 1.2 ± 0.8 (0–2) N/A P = 0.006
caregiver burden
CMAI cluster 1 (/70) 15.4 ± 8.1 (10–35) 10.8 ± 2.5 (10–18) 11.1 ± 2.4 (10–17) N/A P = 0.041
aggressive behavior
CMAI cluster 2 (/77) 24.7 ± 10.9 (11–39)a 13.1 ± 3.3 (11–21)a 18.5 ± 7.5 (11–33) N/A P = 0.021
physically nonaggressive behavior
CMAI cluster 3 (/56) 16.1 ± 8.6 (8–33) 11.8 ± 5.6 (8–23) 14.9 ± 7.6 (8–25) N/A P = 0.344
verbally agitated behavior
CMAI total sore (/203) 56.2 ± 22.1 (29–90) 35.7 ± 7.4 (29–47) 44.5 ± 12.3 (29–65) N/A P = 0.040
CSDD total score (/38) 12.1 ± 3.3 (8–19) aaa 5.0 ± 1.2 (3–7) aaa, bbb 10.1 ± 2.1 (8–14)bbb N/A P <0.0001
depression
Interval between rating and death (days) 3.8 ± 10.1 (0–6) 3.9 ± 7.0 (0–9) 5.2 ± 9.4 (0–10) N/A P = 0.713
MMSE, staging and pH data      
MMSE scored (/30) 12.0 ± 6.6 (7–21) number = 4 16.0 ± 4.3 (10–25)b number = 8 8.7 ± 4.8 (4–16)b number = 6 N/A P = 0.041
GDS score: dementia staging (/7) 6.2 ± 0.8 (5–7) 5.8 ± 1.0 (4–7) 6.6 ± 0.5 (6–7) N/A P = 0.151
pH values cerebellar brain tissue 6.5 ± 0.3 (5.9-7.1) 6.5 ± 0.3 (6.0-6.8) 6.7 ± 0.3 (6.4-7.2) 6.4 ± 0.2 (6.0-6.7) P = 0.300
  1. Mean ± SD with minimum-maximum ranges between parentheses; Kruskal-Wallis analyses (P <0.05) with post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests were performed; data remaining statistically significant following Bonferroni correction are presented above with one superscript letter (P <0.017; for three groups comparisons because CONTR data are absent); χ2 statistics were used to compare male/female ratios and taking/not taking any type of psychotropic medication; significant differences with P <0.01 and P <0.0001 are respectively indicated with two and three repeated superscript letters; the following letters are used: aAD + D versus. AD-D, bAD-D versus. DLB + D.
  2. cPostmortem delay indicates the number of hours between time of death and storage of the brain at −80°C; donly MMSE scores with no more than four months between scoring and date of death were included.
  3. AD + D/-D, depressed/nondepressed Alzheimer’s disease patients; Behave-AD, Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease Rating Scale; CMAI, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory; CONTR; control subjects; CSDD, Cornell Score for Depression in Dementia; DLB + D, depressed dementia with Lewy bodies patients; GDS, Global Deterioration Scale; MFS, Middelheim Frontality Score; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; N/A, not applicable.