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Table 1 Summary of published cases describing the clinical features of chronic traumatic encephalopathy

From: Clinical subtypes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy: literature review and proposed research diagnostic criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome

  Clinical features
Study Sample Behavioral Mood Cognition Motor
(total n = 202)
Parker [16] (1934) Boxers (n = 3) Social Anxiety Reduced intelligence Ataxia
inappropriateness Labile emotions Memory impairment Clonus
Childish behavior Fatigue Impaired attention Dragging gait
   Visuospatial difficulties Dysarthria
Muscle weakness
Spasticity
Tremor
Herzog [42] (1938) Boxers (n = 7) Boastfulness Apathy General cognitive impairment Dysarthria
Personality changes Flat affect Memory difficulties Masked facies
Impulsiveness   Perseveration Shuffling gait
Loss of control   Language difficulties Truncal ataxia
   Alogia
Dementia
Knoll et al. [43] (1938) Boxers (n = 3) Personality changes Apathy General cognitive impairment Ataxia
   Flat affect Memory impairment Dysarthria
Loss of interest Visuospatial difficulties Masked facies
Prolix Alogia  
Dementia
Jokl [31] (1941) and Jokl and Guttmann [32] (1933) Boxers (n = 3) Boastfulness Apathy Reduced intelligence Ataxia
Childish behavior Depression Executive dysfunction Dysarthria
Paranoid delusions Euphoria Memory impairment Masked facies
Personality changes Fatigue Impaired attention Muscle weakness
Physical violence Flat affect Altered concentration Shuffling gait
Psychosis Insomnia Language difficulties Tremor
Short fuse Irritability Dysgraphia Unsteady gait
Explosivity Labile emotions Visuospatial difficulties  
Social inappropriateness Loss of interest  
Verbal violence Mania
  Mood swings
Schwarz [44] (1953) Boxers (n = 3) Personality changes Fearfulness Memory impairment Ataxia
Short fuse Irritability Altered concentration Dysarthria
Explosivity Labile emotions Language difficulties Masked facies
    Muscle weakness
Stamping gait
Tremor
Unsteady Gait
Soeder and Arndt [45] (1954) Boxers (n = 5) Boastfulness Apathy General cognitive impairment Clonus
Disinhibited behavior Depressed mood Executive dysfunction Dysarthria
Inappropriate speech Euphoria Memory impairment Masked facies
Paranoia Fatigue Impaired attention Rolling gait
Personality changes Flat affect Altered concentration Tremor
Physical violence Insomnia Language difficulties Truncal ataxia
Psychosis Mania Alogia Unsteady gait
Short fuse Mood swings
Explosivity Prolix
Social inappropriateness  
Grahmann and Ule [33] (1957) Boxers (n = 4) Childish behavior Apathy General cognitive impairment Dysarthria
Confirmed CTE (1) Disinhibited behavior Depressed Executive dysfunction Swaying gait
Disinhibited speech Euphoria Memory impairment Masked facies
Impulsivity Labile emotions Impaired attention
Loss of control Fatigue Altered concentration
Physical violence Flat affect Dementia
Personality changes Irritable
Short fuse Mood swings
Explosivity Prolix
Social inappropriateness  
Muller [46] (1958) Boxers (n = 3) Social isolation Fatigue General cognitive impairment Dysarthria
Personality changes Irritability Executive dysfunction Unsteady gait
Lack of insight   Impaired attention Spastic gait
   Memory impairment  
Altered concentration
Dementia
Spillane [47] (1962) Boxers (n = 5) Childish behavior Anxiety General cognitive impairment Ataxia
Disinhibited behavior Depressed mood Reduced intelligence Dysarthria
Impulsivity Euphoria Memory impairment Dragging gait
  Mania Visuospatial difficulties Muscle weakness
Payne mood swings Dysgraphia Tremor
Lack of insight Unsteady gait
Dementia  
Mawdsley and Ferguson [22] (1963) Boxers (n = 10) Impulsivity Apathy General cognitive impairment Ataxia
Loss of control Depression Reduced intelligence Dysarthria
Physical violence Insomnia Memory impairment Dragging gait
Psychosis Irritability Language difficulties Masked facies
Paranoid delusions   Dysgraphia Muscle weakness
Personality changes   Dementia Tremor
Short fuse    Unsteady gait
Explosivity    
Social inappropriateness
Verbal violence
Critchley [23-25] (1949, 1957, 1964) Boxers (n = 17) Disinhibited speech Depressed General cognitive impairment Ataxia
Disinhibited behavior Labile emotions Reduced intelligence Clumsy
Impulsivity Euphoria Memory impairment Dysarthria
Lack of insight Insomnia Impaired attention Masked facies
Physical violence Irritable Altered concentration Muscle weakness
Personality changes Loss of interest Visuospatial difficulties Tremor
Social inappropriateness Fatigue Dementia Unsteady gait
Short fuse
Payne [48] (1968) Boxers (n = 6) Disinhibited behavior Depressed mood General cognitive impairment Ataxia
Impulsivity Labile emotions Reduced intelligence Dysarthria
Paranoid delusions Insomnia Altered concentration Unsteady gait
Physical violence Mania Visuospatial difficulties  
Psychotic Mood swings Memory impairment
Verbal violence Suicidal ideation  
Johnson [26] (1969) Boxers (n = 17) Loss of control Anxiety General cognitive impairment Ataxia
Paranoid delusions Labile emotions Reduced intelligence Dysarthria
Personality changes Irritability Memory impairment Tremor
Psychotic   Dementia Dragging gait
Short fuse    Masked facies
Explosivity    Muscle weakness
Verbal violence    
Roberts [49] (1969) Boxers (n = 11) Lack of insight Apathy Reduced intelligence Ataxia
Paranoid delusions Depression Executive dysfunction Dysarthria
Psychosis Euphoria Memory impairment Dragging gait
Short fuse Flat affect Perseveration Masked facies
Explosivity Labile emotions Impaired attention Muscle weakness
   Altered concentration Shuffling gait
Language difficulties Spasticity
Dysgraphia Tremor
Visuospatial difficulties Unsteady gait
Dementia  
Corsellis et al. [50] (1973) Boxers (n = 13) Confirmed CTE (13) Childish behavior Anxiety General cognitive impairment Ataxia
Paranoid delusions Labile emotions Reduced intelligence Dysarthria
Personality changes Irritability Memory impairment Masked facies
Short fuse   Dementia Muscle weakness
Explosivity    Tremor
Social inappropriateness    Staggering gait
Social isolation    Shuffling gait
Verbal violence    Unsteady gait
Sabharwal et al. [51] (1987) Boxers (n = 4) Inappropriate speech Depression Reduced intelligence Ataxia
  Irritability Memory impairment Spasticity
Labile emotions   Dysarthria
Mood swings   
Jordan et al. [52] (1997) Boxers (n = 19) Disinhibited speech Depression Impaired attention Ataxia
Disinhibited behavior Irritability Altered concentration Clonus
Flat affect Memory impairment Dysarthria
Mania   Spasticity
   Tremor
Unsteady gait
Omalu et al. [29,53,54] (2005, 2006, 2010) Football and wrestling (n = 5) Paranoid delusions Suicidality General cognitive impairment -
Social isolation Anxiety Memory impairment
Physical violence Labile emotions Language difficulties
Confirmed CTE (5)   Irritability Executive dysfunction
Insomnia Impaired attention
Depression  
Mckee et al. [2] (2013) Boxing, American football, ice hockey, wrestling (n = 64) Explosivity Depression Memory impairment Dysarthria
Aggression Hopelessness Executive dysfunction Gait disturbance
Impulsivity Suicidality Impaired attention Parkinsonism
Paranoia Mood swings Language difficulties
   Visuospatial difficulties
Dementia
Confirmed CTE (64)
  1. CTE, chronic traumatic encephalopathy.