Translational research pathways and relationship to basic and clinical sciences. Rational development and clinical implementation of safe and effective diagnostics and therapeutics for blast traumatic brain injury, related sequelae, and associated comorbidities will require detailed mechanistic understanding of the underlying pathology (clinical science) and pathogenic mechanisms (basic science) across all stages of the disease (initiation, progression, interaction, termination). A strong clinical and basic science foundation is an essential prerequisite for efficient identification and validation of new diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Multidisciplinary translational research teams are essential for these efforts. Collaborative partnerships with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies can provide additional resources, share development risk, and - under favorable conditions - shoulder transition costs, including product development, intellectual property and regulatory management, safety and toxicological testing, preclinical efficacy evaluation, and clinical trial testing.