Detection of ApoE charge-isoforms and prediction of AD. (A) 2D mxWb analysis of the distribution of ApoE charge-isoforms in the hippocampus of AD patients and control subjects shows that the charge-isoform corresponding to a pI = 5.2 is unique to the 44D group; similarly, the spot at pI = 5.8 is more abundant in the E33 group; and the non-AD population displays fewer ApoE charge-isoforms and with lower expression levels. (B) Analysis of the ApoE charge-isoforms in the serum of AD patients shows that their migration patterns are unique to each population (indicated by the arrows). (C) The specific features of ApoE charge-isoform migration patterns are used to determine the disease state of each individual sample: the red arrow at the bottom indicates a feature (spot) that is uniquely found in patients having an ϵ4 gene. The yellow arrows on the left indicate features that are found in groups containing at least one ϵ3 along with one ϵ4, whereas the red circle shows a protein modification (“smear”) that has been found only in 44D samples. The green circle shows a feature that is unique to the 33D group. Each experiment was run in groups of six unknown samples and one reference protein, indicated as hr-ApoE.