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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for the separate study groups after imputation

From: The association of angiotensin-converting enzyme with biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

  Control group (n = 40) AD group (n = 78)
Demographics   
  Age (years) 63 (8) 68 (7)**
  Female sex (%) 47 64*
  Education (range 1 to 7) 6 (3 to 7) 5 (3 to 6)
  APOE-ϵ4 carrier (%) 23 66*
  MMSE (range 0 to 30) 28 (26 to 30) 22 (16 to 27)*
Vascular risk factors/disease   
  Smoking (% current) 23 23
  Body mass index (kg/m2) 25 (5) 24 (5)
  Diabetes mellitus (%) 14 14
  Hypercholesterolemia (%) 28 22*
Blood pressure measures   
  Systolic (mmHg) 133 (14) 147 (22)**
  Diastolic (mmHg) 83 (9) 86 (13)**
  Hypertension (%) 30 55*
ACE measures   
  CSF ACE protein level (ng/ml) 3.78 (1.30) 3.56 (1.16)**
  CSF ACE activity (RFU) 155 (61) 148 (58)*
  Serum ACE protein level (ng/ml) 4.22 (1.50) 3.72 (1.14)**
  Serum ACE activity (RFU) 255 (152) 205 (116)**
CSF biomarkers   
  Amyloid β1–42 (pg/ml) 887 (622 to 1,157) 475 (334 to 743)**
  Total tau (pg/ml) 246 (122 to 371) 619 (344 to 1,102)**
  Phosphorylated tau (pg/ml) 45 (29 to 74) 87 (54 to 137)**
  1. Data presented as mean (standard deviation), percentage, or median (10th to 90th percentile). Percentage of missing values before imputation: education, 0.8%; APOE genotyping, serum ACE protein and activity levels, 1.7%; MMSE, 3.4%; smoking, 7.6%; diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia, 14%; all other variables, 0%. ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; AD, Alzheimer’s disease; APOE, apolipoprotein E; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; RFU, relative fluorescence units.*P < 0.05 versus controls, **P < 0.01 versus controls.