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Table 4 Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ lowering - summary of clinical trial results

From: Interpreting Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials in light of the effects on amyloid-β

Name Mechanism Stage of development NHVs Patient population Patient CSF Aβa Amyloid PET Reference
AN1792 Active vaccine D/C (phase IIa) NR M-M No change NR [115]
Bapineuzumab Passive vaccine D/C ( phase III (i.v.); phase II (s.c.)) NR M-M No change Decrease [74, 116]
Solanezumab Passive vaccine Phase III, pre-sym NR M-M, mild Total (40/42) - increased Unbound 42 - increased Unbound 40 - decreased NR [117, 122]
Crenezumab Passive vaccine Phase I/II NR Pre-sym, FAD NR NR [127]
Gantanerumab Passive vaccine Phase II/III NR M-M, pre-dem NR Decrease [101]
IVIG Anti-inflammatory Phase III NR M-M No change NR [126]
Tarenflurbil GSM D/C (phase III) NR M-M NR NR [109]
Semagacestat GSI D/C (phase III) No change M-M No change NR [102104]
Avagacestat GSI D/C (phase II) ≥50% decrease M-M High dose: ~50% decrease Tolerated doses: ≤15% decrease NR [79, 85, 86]
LY2811376, LY2886721 BACE inhibitor D/C (phase II) ≥50% decrease M-M NR NR [82]
MK8931 BACE inhibitor Phase II NR M-M ≥80% decrease NR [99]
  1. aMost advanced stage clinical trial. Aβ, amyloid-β; BACE, β-site APP-cleaving enzyme; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; D/C, clinical development discontinued; FAD, familial Alzheimer's disease; GSI, γ-secretase inhibitor; GSM, γ-secretase modulator; i.v., intraventricular; M-M, mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease; NHV, normal healthy volunteer; NR, not reported; PET, positron emission tomography; pre-dem, predementia; pre-sym, presymptomatic; s.c., subcutaneous.