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Table 1 Characteristics of 64 patients with VLOSLP

From: Characteristics of very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis as prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies: a cross-sectional study

 

All

Not tested for DLB biomarkers (n = 30)

Tested for DLB biomarkers (n = 34)

Effect size

p

Gender, female (%)

48 (75%)

20 (66.7%)

28 (83.4%)

0.181

0.148

Age, years

78.5 (6.4)

77.7 (6.2)

79.1 (6.5)

− 0.117

0.349

Onset age, years

75.8 (7.0)

75.3 (6.8)

76.2 (7.2)

− 0.090

0.471

Education duration, years

12.3 (2.2)

12.4 (2.5)

12.3 (1.9)

− 0.031

0.803

Cognitive battery

 MMSE

26.4 (1.8)

26.0 (1.7)

26.7 (1.8)

− 0.186

0.137

 WMS-R LM I

10.7 (5.7)

9.4 (4.9)

11.8 (6.1)

− 0.187

0.136

 WMS-R LM II

5.0 (4.5)

4.1 (4.2)

5.8 (4.7)

− 0.185

0.139

 DSST, ssa

9.7 (3.2)

10.4 (3.0)

9.0 (3.2)

− 0.221

0.093

 BDT, ssb

9.2 (3.1)

9.3 (2.9)

9.1 (3.3)

− 0.013

0.923

 Digit span, ssb

10.7 (3.9)

10.9 (3.5)

10.5 (3.3)

− 0.048

0.718

 Information, ssb

10.2 (2.4)

10.2 (2.3)

10.2 (2.4)

− 0.020

0.878

NPI-plusc

 Delusions

3.9 (4.0)

2.3 (2.9)

5.5 (4.3)

− 0.395d

0.002*

 Hallucinations

2.3 (3.5)

0.8 (1.1)

3.7 (4.3)

− 0.375d

0.003*

 Agitation/aggression

1.1 (2.7)

1.7 (3.1)

0.6 (2.3)

− 0.282

0.027*

 Dysphoria/depression

0.7 (1.5)

0.5 (1.0)

0.9 (1.8)

− 0.043

0.733

 Anxiety

1.2 (2.6)

0.7 (2.3)

1.7 (2.9)

− 0.246

0.053

 Euphoria

0.1 (0.6)

0.2 (0.8)

0.0 (0.2)

− 0.087

0.495

 Apathy

3.1 (3.7)

3.6 (3.5)

2.6 (3.9)

− 0.209

0.101

 Disinhibition

1.0 (2.6)

1.2 (2.8)

0.8 (2.5)

− 0.130

0.308

 Irritability

1.3 (2.9)

1.8 (3.4)

0.8 (2.3)

− 0.098

0.442

 Aberrant motor behavior

0.4 (1.8)

0.2 (1.1)

0.5 (2.2)

− 0.067

0.596

 Nighttime behavior

2.0 (2.9)

1.9 (3.0)

2.2 (2.8)

− 0.092

0.467

 Appetite

1.7 (3.2)

2.3 (3.7)

1.2 (2.6)

− 0.148

0.244

 Cognitive fluctuation

1.0 (2.0)

0.5 (1.3)

1.6 (2.4)

− 0.275

0.030*

Contents of delusions

 At least one delusion

49 (76.6%)

18 (60.0%)

31 (91.2%)

0.367d

0.003*

 Delusion of persecution

26 (40.6%)

8 (26.7%)

18 (52.9%)

0.267

0.033*

 Delusion of theft

25 (39.1%)

10 (33.3%)

15 (44.1%)

0.110

0.378

 Delusional jealousy

6 (9.4%)

2 (6.7%)

4 (11.8%)

0.087

0.485

 Phantom-border delusion

20 (31.3%)

5 (16.7%)

15 (44.1%)

0.296

0.018*

 Misidentification of person

1 (1.6%)

0 (0.0%)

1 (2.9%)

0.118

0.344

 Misidentification of place

2 (3.1%)

0 (0.0%)

2 (5.9%)

0.169

0.177

 Delusion of abandonment

4 (6.3%)

3(10.0%)

1 (2.9%)

0.146

0.244

 Misidentification of TV

3 (4.7%)

0 (0.0%)

3 (8.8%)

0.208

0.096

 Other delusions

8 (12.5%)

2 (6.7%)

6 (17.6%)

0.166

0.185

Modalities of hallucinations

 At least one hallucination

35 (54.7%)

11 (36.7%)

24 (70.6%)

0.340d

0.007*

 Auditory hallucinations

23 (35.9%)

8 (26.7%)

15 (44.1%)

0.181

0.147

 Monolog

10 (15.6%)

3(10.0%)

7 (20.6%)

0.146

0.244

 Visual hallucinations

18 (28.1%)

3(10.0%)

15 (44.1%)

0.379d

0.002*

 Hallucinations of smell

3 (4.7%)

2 (6.7%)

1 (2.9%)

0.088

0.482

 Tactile hallucinations

2 (3.1%)

1 (3.3%)

1 (2.9%)

0.011

0.928

 Hallucinations of taste

0 (0.0%)

0 (0.0%)

0 (0.0%)

-

-

 Other hallucinations

4 (6.3%)

1 (3.3%)

3 (8.8%)

0.113

0.365

Medications

 Antipsychotics

12 (18.8%)

5 (16.7%)

7 (20.6%)

0.050

0.688

 Benzodiazepine

22 (34.4%)

10 (33.3%)

12 (35.3%)

0.021

0.869

 Anticholinergic drugs

2 (3.1%)

1 (3.3%)

1 (2.9%)

0.011

0.928

  1. Data represent mean (SD) or number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: VLOSLP very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis, DLB dementia with Lewy bodies, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, WMS-R Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, LM logical memory, DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test, BDT block design test, ss standardized score, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory
  3. Results of the Mann–Whitney U test for continuous and ordinal variables and chi-square test for nominal variables
  4. *p < 0.05
  5. aLack of data on two patients in VLOSLP without DLB biomarkers and on four patients in VLOSLP with DLB biomarkers
  6. bLack of data on two patients in VLOSLP without DLB biomarkers and on five patients in VLOSLP with DLB biomarkers
  7. cLack of data on two patients in VLOSLP with DLB biomarkers
  8. dMedium-to-large effect size. We calculated r for Mann-Whitney U test and Cohen’s W for chi-square test as effect size