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Table 1 Characteristics of 64 patients with VLOSLP

From: Characteristics of very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis as prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies: a cross-sectional study

  All Not tested for DLB biomarkers (n = 30) Tested for DLB biomarkers (n = 34) Effect size p
Gender, female (%) 48 (75%) 20 (66.7%) 28 (83.4%) 0.181 0.148
Age, years 78.5 (6.4) 77.7 (6.2) 79.1 (6.5) − 0.117 0.349
Onset age, years 75.8 (7.0) 75.3 (6.8) 76.2 (7.2) − 0.090 0.471
Education duration, years 12.3 (2.2) 12.4 (2.5) 12.3 (1.9) − 0.031 0.803
Cognitive battery
 MMSE 26.4 (1.8) 26.0 (1.7) 26.7 (1.8) − 0.186 0.137
 WMS-R LM I 10.7 (5.7) 9.4 (4.9) 11.8 (6.1) − 0.187 0.136
 WMS-R LM II 5.0 (4.5) 4.1 (4.2) 5.8 (4.7) − 0.185 0.139
 DSST, ssa 9.7 (3.2) 10.4 (3.0) 9.0 (3.2) − 0.221 0.093
 BDT, ssb 9.2 (3.1) 9.3 (2.9) 9.1 (3.3) − 0.013 0.923
 Digit span, ssb 10.7 (3.9) 10.9 (3.5) 10.5 (3.3) − 0.048 0.718
 Information, ssb 10.2 (2.4) 10.2 (2.3) 10.2 (2.4) − 0.020 0.878
NPI-plusc
 Delusions 3.9 (4.0) 2.3 (2.9) 5.5 (4.3) − 0.395d 0.002*
 Hallucinations 2.3 (3.5) 0.8 (1.1) 3.7 (4.3) − 0.375d 0.003*
 Agitation/aggression 1.1 (2.7) 1.7 (3.1) 0.6 (2.3) − 0.282 0.027*
 Dysphoria/depression 0.7 (1.5) 0.5 (1.0) 0.9 (1.8) − 0.043 0.733
 Anxiety 1.2 (2.6) 0.7 (2.3) 1.7 (2.9) − 0.246 0.053
 Euphoria 0.1 (0.6) 0.2 (0.8) 0.0 (0.2) − 0.087 0.495
 Apathy 3.1 (3.7) 3.6 (3.5) 2.6 (3.9) − 0.209 0.101
 Disinhibition 1.0 (2.6) 1.2 (2.8) 0.8 (2.5) − 0.130 0.308
 Irritability 1.3 (2.9) 1.8 (3.4) 0.8 (2.3) − 0.098 0.442
 Aberrant motor behavior 0.4 (1.8) 0.2 (1.1) 0.5 (2.2) − 0.067 0.596
 Nighttime behavior 2.0 (2.9) 1.9 (3.0) 2.2 (2.8) − 0.092 0.467
 Appetite 1.7 (3.2) 2.3 (3.7) 1.2 (2.6) − 0.148 0.244
 Cognitive fluctuation 1.0 (2.0) 0.5 (1.3) 1.6 (2.4) − 0.275 0.030*
Contents of delusions
 At least one delusion 49 (76.6%) 18 (60.0%) 31 (91.2%) 0.367d 0.003*
 Delusion of persecution 26 (40.6%) 8 (26.7%) 18 (52.9%) 0.267 0.033*
 Delusion of theft 25 (39.1%) 10 (33.3%) 15 (44.1%) 0.110 0.378
 Delusional jealousy 6 (9.4%) 2 (6.7%) 4 (11.8%) 0.087 0.485
 Phantom-border delusion 20 (31.3%) 5 (16.7%) 15 (44.1%) 0.296 0.018*
 Misidentification of person 1 (1.6%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (2.9%) 0.118 0.344
 Misidentification of place 2 (3.1%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (5.9%) 0.169 0.177
 Delusion of abandonment 4 (6.3%) 3(10.0%) 1 (2.9%) 0.146 0.244
 Misidentification of TV 3 (4.7%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (8.8%) 0.208 0.096
 Other delusions 8 (12.5%) 2 (6.7%) 6 (17.6%) 0.166 0.185
Modalities of hallucinations
 At least one hallucination 35 (54.7%) 11 (36.7%) 24 (70.6%) 0.340d 0.007*
 Auditory hallucinations 23 (35.9%) 8 (26.7%) 15 (44.1%) 0.181 0.147
 Monolog 10 (15.6%) 3(10.0%) 7 (20.6%) 0.146 0.244
 Visual hallucinations 18 (28.1%) 3(10.0%) 15 (44.1%) 0.379d 0.002*
 Hallucinations of smell 3 (4.7%) 2 (6.7%) 1 (2.9%) 0.088 0.482
 Tactile hallucinations 2 (3.1%) 1 (3.3%) 1 (2.9%) 0.011 0.928
 Hallucinations of taste 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) - -
 Other hallucinations 4 (6.3%) 1 (3.3%) 3 (8.8%) 0.113 0.365
Medications
 Antipsychotics 12 (18.8%) 5 (16.7%) 7 (20.6%) 0.050 0.688
 Benzodiazepine 22 (34.4%) 10 (33.3%) 12 (35.3%) 0.021 0.869
 Anticholinergic drugs 2 (3.1%) 1 (3.3%) 1 (2.9%) 0.011 0.928
  1. Data represent mean (SD) or number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: VLOSLP very late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis, DLB dementia with Lewy bodies, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, WMS-R Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, LM logical memory, DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test, BDT block design test, ss standardized score, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory
  3. Results of the Mann–Whitney U test for continuous and ordinal variables and chi-square test for nominal variables
  4. *p < 0.05
  5. aLack of data on two patients in VLOSLP without DLB biomarkers and on four patients in VLOSLP with DLB biomarkers
  6. bLack of data on two patients in VLOSLP without DLB biomarkers and on five patients in VLOSLP with DLB biomarkers
  7. cLack of data on two patients in VLOSLP with DLB biomarkers
  8. dMedium-to-large effect size. We calculated r for Mann-Whitney U test and Cohen’s W for chi-square test as effect size