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Table 4 Included studies evaluating the effect of exercise programs on NPS

From: The effects of exercise programs on cognition, activities of daily living, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling people with dementia—a systematic review

Study Type of training Trial duration [weeks] Frequency [sessions/week] Intensity Session duration [min] Setting Adherence Assessment tool Outcome Baseline (mean ± SD) Outcome follow-up (mean ± SD) P-value Conclusion
IG CG IG CG
Hoffmann et al. [37] Aerobic training 16 3 70–80% HRmax 60 Supervised groups of 2–5 76% NPI-12 10 9.4 8.8 11.4 .002b Favors intervention
Lamb et al. [42] Multimodal training 16 2 (+ 1)a Moderate to hard 60–90 Supervised groups of 6–8 and unsupervised home-based 65.63% NPI 8 10 12 8.5 .14 No effect
Öhman et al. [44] Multi-modal training 52 2 NI 60 Supervised home based 72.88% NPI 13.5 ± 12.6 16.6 ± 15.2 2.73 (1.08 to 5.05)2 0.64 (− 2.23 to 3.46)c .41 No effect
Supervised groups of 10 72.12% 12.1 ± 9.8 0.88 (− 1.30 to 2.84)2
Park et al. [38] Strength training 12 2 NI 45 Supervised groups 77.92% CMAI 39.55 ± 8 42.89 ± 11.79 45.33 ± 11.96 46.4 ± 12.38 .09 No effect
44.3 ± 8.74 53.25 ± 16.27 .47
HADS depression 6.82 ± 3.6 9.4 ± 4.09 8.33 ± 5 12.3 ± 4.76 .81
Chair yoga 76.25% 6.5 ± 2.51 8.38 ± 4.07 .89
HADS anxiety 4.36 ± 2.98 5.4 ± 2.63 6.78 ± 3.42 7.89 ± 3.18 .34
6 ± 4.27 8.5 ± 6.4 .12
  1. CG Control group, CMAI Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory-Short Form, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HRmax Maximal heart rate, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory, NPI-12 Neuropsychiatric Inventory – 12 item version, IG Intervention group, NI No information
  2. a Group-based training was offered 2 times per week, but participants were encouraged to perform one session at home
  3. b Group differences in the changes marked as significant in publication
  4. c Change from baseline