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Table 2 Included studies evaluating the effect of exercise programs on cognition

From: The effects of exercise programs on cognition, activities of daily living, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling people with dementia—a systematic review

Study Type of training Trial duration [weeks] Frequency [sessions/week] Intensity Session duration [min] Setting Adherence Assessment tool Domain Outcome Baseline (mean ± SD) Outcome Follow-up (mean ± SD) p value Conclusion
IG CG IG CG
De Oliveira Silva et al. [41] Multi-modal training 12 2 70–80% VO2max 60 Supervised 87% MMSE Global cognition 20.58 ± 4.91 21.43 ± 4.18 20.31 ± 4.68 19.5 ± 5.37 .11 No effect
CDT Executive function 1.5 1 1 1 .54
VF Verbal fluency 12 9 10 10 .16
ST3 Selective attention, inhibitory control, and processing speed 42 41.53 43.51 40.08 .93
Hoffmann et al. [37] Aerobic training 16 3 70–80% HRmax 60 Supervised groups of 2–5 76% SDMT Mental speed and attention 27.1 ± 14.7 25.4 ± 14.3 26.2 ± 15.6 24.1 ± 14.9 .179 No effect
ADAS-Cog verbal memory test Verbal memory (immediate recall) 11.2 ± 4.5 11.2 ± 4.5 11.2 ± 4.6 11.4 ± 4.4 .813
VF Verbal fluency 23.2 ± 12 24.2 ± 12.4 23.1 ± 11.8 25.6 ± 14.9 .133
SCWT Psychomotor speed 17.6 ± 10.2 18 ± 9.6 17.5 ± 10.4 18.3 ± 9.9 .441
MSSE Global cognition 23.8 ± 3.4 24.1 ± 3.8 23.9 ± 3.4 23.9 ± 3.9 .244
Karssemeijer et al. [39] Aerobic training 12 3 50–75% HRR 30–50 Supervised individually 81.1% Z-score (TMT-B short, SCWT, VF, and RS) Executive function 0.05 ± 0.72  − 0.03 ± 0.8 0.15 ± 0.74  − 0.12 ± 0.87 .338 No effect
Z-score (LLT) Episodic memory  − 0.08 ± 1.05  − 0.08 ± 0.86  − 0.11 ± 1.15  − 0.34 ± 1.21 .184
Z-score (WAIS-III DST and WMS-III SS) Working memory 0.02 ± 0.73 0.15 ± 0.95 0.04 ± 0.80  − 0.12 ± 1.02 .153
Z-score (TMT-A and SCWT) Psychomotor speed 0.14 ± 0.73 0.0 ± 0.81 0.32 ± 0.64  − 0.25 ± 1.04 .004a Favors intervention
Z-score (WMS-R LM and HVLT-R) Episodic memory NI .447 No effect
Lamb et al. [42] Multi-modal training 16 2 (+ 1)b Moderate to hard 60–90 Supervised groups of 6–8 and unsupervised home-based 65.63% ADAS-Cog Global cognition 21.4 ± 9.6 21.8 ± 7.7 22.9 ± 11.6 22.4 ± 9.4 .24 No effect
Öhman et al. [43] Multi-modal training 52 2 NI 60 Supervised home based 72.88% CDT Executive function 2.32 ± 2.04 2.45 ± 2.09 NI .03a Favors intervention
2.31 ± 2.09 .07 No effect
VF Verbal fluency 8.34 ± 4.75 7.89 ± 4.25 NI .93
Supervised groups of 10 72.12% 8.05 ± 4.3
MMSE Global cognition 17.8 ± 6.6 17.7 ± 6.2 NI .74
18.5 ± 6.3
Yu et al. [40] Aerobic training 24 3 50–75% HRR 40–60 Supervised groups up to 3  > 70% ADAS-Cog Global cognition 19.3 ± 7.4 17.8 ± 6.5 NI .386 No effect
Z-score (WMS-R LM and HVLT-R) Episodic memory NI .447
Z-score (TMT-B, EXIT-25, and CDT) Executive function NI .849
WAIS-R DST Attention NI .539
Z-score (WAIS-III DST and TMT A) Processing speed NI .778
Z-score (COWAT, VF, and BNT) Language NI .925
  1.  ADAS-Cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive Subscale, BNT Boston Naming Test, CDT Clock-Drawing Test, CG Control group, COWAT Controlled Oral Word Association Test, HRmax Maximal heart rate, EXIT25 Executive Interview -25 Items, HVLT-R Hopkins Verbal Learning Test—Revised, HRR Heart rate reserve, IG Intervention group, LLT Location Learning Test, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, NI No information, RS Rule Shift Card Test, SCWT Stroop Color and Word Test, SDMT Symbol Digit Modalities Test, ST3 Stroop Test – third card, TMT-A Trail Making Test – Subtest A, TMT-B Trail Making Test – Subtest B, VF Verbal Fluency Test, VO2max Maximal aerobic capacity, WAIS-III DST Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Third Edition Digit Span Test, WAIS-R DST Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised Digit Symbol Test, WMS-R Wechsler Memory Scale—Revised Logical Memory, WMS-III SS Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition Spatial Span
  2. a Group differences in the changes marked as significant in publication
  3. b Group-based training was offered 2 times per week, but participants were encouraged to perform one session at home