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Table 1 Study characteristics of included studies

From: The effects of exercise programs on cognition, activities of daily living, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling people with dementia—a systematic review

Study Country Sample size Age [years] Gender [% female] MMSE (mean ± SD) Diagnosis criteria Type of training Trial duration [weeks] Relevant outcomes Risk of bias
IG CG IG CG IG CG IG CG IG CG
De Oliveira et al. [41] Brazil 13 14 77.54 ± 8.05 81.22 ± 8.88 78.6 38.5 20.9 ± 4.34 20.66 ± 5.19 DSM-IV Multimodal training Usual care 12 Cognition High concerns
Hoffmann et al. [37] Denmark 107 93 69.8 ± 7.4 71.3 ± 7.3 47.7 38.7 23.8 ± 3.4 24.1 ± 3.8 NINDS-ADRDA Aerobic training Usual care 16 Cognition ADLs NPS Some concerns
Karssemeijer et al. [39] The Netherlands 39a 38 80.9 ± 6.1 79.8 ± 6.5 44.7 46.2 22.5 ± 3.1 21.9 ± 3.1 DSM-IV Aerobic training Stretching 12 Cognition Some concerns
Lamb et al. [42] UK 329 165 76.9 ± 7.7 78.1 ± 7.7 40 37 22.1 ± 4.6 22.1 ± 4.6 DSM-IV Multimodal training Usual care 16 Cognition ADLs NPS Some concerns
Öhman et al. [43, 44] Finland 70 70 77.5 ± 5.4 78.1 ± 5.3 42.9 37.1 17.8 ± 6.6 17.7 ± 6.2 NINDS-ADRDA Multimodal training Usual care 52 Cognition NPS High concerns
70 78.3 ± 5.1 35.7 18.5 ± 6.3
Park et al. [38] USA 11 10 84.3 ± 7.7 41.9 14.7 ± 5.65 NI Strength training Music intervention 12 NPS High concerns
10 Chair yoga
Yu et al. [40] USA 64 32 77.4 ± 6.6 77.5 ± 7.1 44 47 21 ± 3.5 22.2 ± 2.7 NINDS-ADRDA Aerobic training Stretching 24 Cognition High concerns
  1. ADLs Activities of daily living, NPS Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, CG Control group, SM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—fourth edition, IG Intervention group, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, NINDS-ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association
  2. RCT with 2 intervention groups, but one did not meet inclusion criteria of this review