From: P-tau subgroups in AD relate to distinct amyloid production and synaptic integrity profiles
Characteristics per p-tau subgroup | p-values of p-tau subgroup comparisons | |||||||||||||||
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Controls (n = 98) | Subgroup 1: p-tau ≤ 56 pg/ml (n = 94) | Subgroup 2: p-tau 57–96 pg/ml (n = 147) | Subgroup 3: p-tau 97–159 pg/ml (n = 89) | Subgroup 4: p-tau > 159 pg/ml (n = 11) | p-value of group difference | Control-subgroup 1 | Control-subgroup 2 | Control-subgroup 3 | Control-subgroup 4 | Subgroup 1–2 | Subgroup 1–3 | Subgroup 1–4 | Subgroup 2–3 | Subgroup 2–4 | Subgroup 3–4 | |
Preclinical AD, n (percentage^{a}) | 0 (0%) | 21 (22%) | 20 (14%) | 9 (10%) | 1 (9.1%) | 7.2E−05 | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | 1.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 |
Prodromal AD, n (percentage^{a}) | 0 (0%) | 32 (34%) | 46 (31%) | 21 (24%) | 3 (27%) | 2.4E−08 | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | 1.4E−02 | 0.524 | 0.931 | 0.524 | 1.000 | 1.000 |
AD dementia, n (percentage^{a}) | 0 (0%) | 41 (44%) | 81 (55%) | 59 (66%) | 7 (64%) | 1.1E−21 | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | 0.0E+00 | 0.0E+00 | 8.9E−03 | 0.178 | 0.977 | 1.000 |
Age in years, mean ± sd | 58.2 ± 7.9 | 63.6 ± 7.8 | 65.5 ± 6.9 | 66.6 ± 7.8 | 68.5 ± 8.6 | 6.0E−13 | 1.3E−05 | 2.0E−10 | 3.4E−10 | 7.4E−04 | 0.119 | 1.5E−02 | 0.080 | 0.179 | 0.208 | 0.581 |
Sex, female (%) | 32 (33%) | 33 (35%) | 56 (38%) | 52 (58%) | 8 (73%) | 4.2E−04 | 0.836 | 0.661 | 6.9E−03 | 0.056 | 0.822 | 1.2E−02 | 0.073 | 1.2E−02 | 0.088 | 0.696 |
APOE ε4 carriership (%) | 28 (29%) | 62 (66%) | 93 (63%) | 54 (61%) | 7 (64%) | 1.2E−07 | 0.0E+00 | 0.0E+00 | 1.0E−04 | 0.108 | 1.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 | 1.000 |
MMSE score, mean ± sd | 28.5 ± 1.4 | 24.6 ± 4.7 | 23.9 ± 4.2 | 22.4 ± 4.8 | 22.5 ± 4.3 | 1.3E−28 | 1.8E−12 | 2.1E−22 | 3.7E−22 | 3.5E−06 | 0.072 | 6.1E−04 | 0.086 | 2.5E−02 | 0.282 | 0.987 |
Amyloid in pg/ml, mean ± sd | 1139 ± 161 | 616 ± 119 | 607 ± 99 | 615 ± 95 | 596 ± 95 | 3.3E−48 | 2.7E−32 | 4.3E−39 | 1.4E−31 | 1.5E−07 | 0.846 | 0.953 | 0.846 | 0.846 | 0.846 | 0.846 |
t-tau in pg/ml, mean ± sd | 207 ± 59 | 286 ± 106 | 568 ± 154 | 982 ± 252 | 1732 ± 359 | 2.4E−77 | 6.3E−10 | 1.4E−38 | 1.7E−31 | 7.2E−08 | 1.7E−31 | 5.7E−31 | 7.2E−08 | 6.0E−29 | 4.8E−08 | 7.6E−07 |
p-tau in pg/ml, mean ± sd | 36.7 ± 9.3 | 42.9 ± 11 | 75.4 ± 11 | 116 ± 16 | 195 ± 23 | 4.0E−82 | 4.4E−06 | 4.2E−39 | 9.9E−32 | 7.8E−08 | 1.9E−38 | 3.2E−31 | 7.8E−08 | 2.2E−37 | 5.6E−08 | 7.8E−08 |
Abnormal t-tau status, n (%) | 0 (0%) | 15 (16%) | 141 (96%) | 89 (100%) | 11 (100%) | 2.2E−77 | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | 0.0E+00 | 0.0E+00 | 0.0E+00 | 0.17 | 1 | n.t. |
Abnormal p-tau status, n (%) | 0 (0%) | 0 (0%) | 147 (100%) | 89 (100%) | 11 (100%) | 1.0E−93 | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. | n.t. |
BACE1 in ng/ml, median (range) | 1.68 (.77–3.37) | 1.51 (.63–2.47) | 1.93 (1.04–3.48) | 2.51 (1.54–3.93) | 3.60 (2.61–4.34) | 2.1E−37 | 5.0E−03 | 2.0E−06 | 2.2E−18 | 1.3E−07 | 1.1E−13 | 2.2E−23 | 1.3E−07 | 7.0E−13 | 1.5E−07 | 7.4E−05 |
Aβ40 in ng/ml, median (range) | 6.09 (3.44–10.68) | 5.02 (2.0–8.92) | 6.71 (3.32–12.20) | 8.69 (3.59–13.95) | 9.40 (7.81–15.79) | 9.8E−34 | 2.8E−06 | 1.5E−02 | 8.4E−15 | 4.2E−06 | 3.3E−13 | 1.5E−23 | 2.2E−07 | 9.8E−13 | 1.1E−05 | 0.069 |
NfL in pg/ml, median (range) | 245 (113–1594) | 389 (147–1770) | 467 (169–2322) | 630 (304–1441) | 809 (413–1743) | 5.9E−37 | 5.5E−08 | 1.1E−20 | 3.4E−24 | 7.0E−07 | 4.5E−05 | 2.1E−14 | 3.1E−05 | 9.0E−09 | 4.1E−04 | 0.107 |
VAMP2 in pg/ml, median (range) | 131 (40–275) | 106 (28–229) | 163 (82–288) | 237 (84–398) | 382 (269–522) | 3.8E−41 | 2.9E−04 | 3.4E−07 | 6.9E−21 | 3.4E−07 | 8.3E−16 | 4.5E−24 | 3.4E−07 | 3.8E−15 | 3.2E−07 | 1.6E−05 |
NRGN in pg/ml, median (range) | 262 (73–498) | 250 (56–501) | 431 (188–752) | 657 (353–1268) | 1060 (754–1915) | 3.4E−63 | 0.735 | 9.3E−25 | 3.9E−30 | 8.1E−08 | 4.4E−25 | 9.2E−30 | 8.1E−08 | 4.3E−23 | 5.6E−08 | 1.2E−06 |