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Table 2 Autonomic and sensorineural symptoms in the prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies patients’ group (pro-DLB group), compared to the group with only one core feature (1S) and the group without any DLB core feature (NS)

From: Prodromal characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies: baseline results of the MEMENTO memory clinics nationwide cohort

  NS group (N = 469) 1S group (N = 275) Pro-DLB group (N = 148) Comparisons (P-values)
Global NS vs 1S groups* NS vs pro-DLB groups* 1S vs pro-DLB groups*
Dry mouth,N(%) 84 (18.5) 80 (29.3) 64 (43.8) < 0.0001* 0.0024 < 0.0001 0.009
Eye dryness,N(%) 54 (11.9) 62 (22.7) 35 (24.0) < 0.0001* 0.0005 0.0014 1
Nasal dryness,N(%) 26 (5.8) 31 (11.4) 27 (18.5) < 0.0001* 0.023 < 0.0001 0.137
Hypersalivation,N(%)        < 0.0001* 0.16 < 0.0001 0.0049
 Occasional hypersalivation 11 (2.4) 16 (6.0) 20 (13.8)     
 Daily hypersalivation 4 (0.9) 1 (0.4) 4 (2.8)     
Lacrimation,N(%)        < 0.0001* 0.0032 < 0.0001 0.23
 Occasional lacrimation 35 (7.6) 41 (15.4) 26 (18.2)     
 Daily lacrimation 3 (0.7) 3 (1.1) 7 (4.9) .    
Rhinorrhea,N(%)        < 0.0001* 0.62 < 0.0001 0.0007
 Occasional rhinorrhea 38 (8.3) 28 (10.3) 29 (19.7)     
 Daily rhinorrhea 9 (2.0) 8 (3.0) 12 (8.2)     
Photophobia,N(%)        < 0.0001* 0.015 < 0.0001 0.008
 Occasional photophobia or with certain types of light 61 (13.2) 58 (21.3) 44 (30.1)     
 Permanent photophobia or with all types of light 7 (1.5) 5 (1.8) 9 (6.2)     
Constipation,N(%)        < 0.0001* 0.19 < 0.0001 0.0012
 Occasional constipation but not requiring treatment 47 (10.2) 46 (16.9) 26 (17.7)     
 Frequent constipation requiring the use of laxatives 22 (4.8) 11 (4.0) 25 (17.0)     
Sexual dysfunction,N(%)        < 0.0001* 0.061 0.051 1
 Slightly modified 52 (11.6) 27 (10.5) 20 (14.6)     
 Severely modified 21 (4.7) 31 (12.1) 25 (18.2)     
SBP mmHg (Q1–Q3)a 133.5 (122.3; 147.0) 130.5 (118.7; 144.7) 135.3 (119.3; 149.3) 0.144 0.17 1 0.55
DBP mmHg (Q1-Q3)a 77.2 (69.3; 84.0) 76 (69.0; 84.0) 77.3 (69.7; 86.0) 0.50 1 1 0.73
HR bpm (Q1––Q3)a 70.7 (64.7; 79.3) 70.7 (64.3; 79.7) 72 (66.0; 80.0) 0.49 1 0.7 1
Systolic hypotension,N(%) 39 (9.4) 36 (14.5) 20 (16.0) 0.052 0.147 0.123 1
Diastolic hypotensionN(%) 29 (7.0) 26 (10.4) 13 (10.4) 0.24 0.37 0.66 1
Variation in HR at orthostatism in bpm (Q1–Q3)a 7 (3.0; 12.0) 7 (4.0; 12.0) 8 (5.0; 12.0) 0.134 0.39 0.27 1
  1. Abbreviations: Bmp beats per minute, DBP diastolic blood pressure (diastolic hypotension = if DBP decreased by more than 10 mmHg), HR, heart rate, SBP systolic blood pressure (systolic hypotension = if SBP decreased by more than 20 mmHg)
  2. aMedian (Q1 = first quartile − Q3 = third quartile)
  3. *P-values for post hoc pairwise comparisons were adjusted with Bonferoni correction and then rescaled to keep an α = 0.05 statistically significant threshold for readability reason