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Table 1 Characteristics of the Lewy MEMENTO groups. Prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies group (pro-DLB), group with only one core symptom (1S group), and group without any core DLB symptoms (NS group)

From: Prodromal characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies: baseline results of the MEMENTO memory clinics nationwide cohort

  NS group (N = 469) 1S group (N = 275) Pro-DLB group (N = 148) Comparisons (P-values)
Global NS vs 1S groups* NS vs pro-DLB groups* 1S vs pro-DLB groups*
Age, yearsa 71.4 (66.1; 77.2) 71.7 (66.0; 77.7) 71.1 (63.1; 80.5) 0.98 1.00 1.00 1.00
Gender, F/M 298/171   163/112   94/54   0.48 0.74 1.00 1.00
Educationb 57.4%   58.2%   47.6%   0.079 1.00 0.117 0.115
APOE-4, % 27.6%   25.6%   30.9%   0.53 1.00 1.00 0.78
CDR = 0.5, % 48.6%   47.6%   60.4%   0.037 1.00 0.037 0.061
MMSEa 29 (27; 30) 29 (27; 30) 28 (27; 29) 0.021 1.00 0.015 0.138
IADL (N= 8) restriction,N(%)        0.0031 1.00 0.0014 0.043
No 390 (84.2) 221 (81.5) 101 (70.1)     
One 47 (10.2) 33 (12.2) 24 (16.7)     
At least two 26 (5.6) 17 (6.3) 19 (13.2)     
RBD 0%   56.7%   75.0%   NA    
Movements during sleep 0%   49.8%   56.2%   NA    
Nightmares, restless nights 0%   20.1%   45.2%   NA    
Hallucinations 0%   13.8%   63.5%   NA    
Passage hallucination 0%   3.6%   26.7%   NA    
Presence hallucination 0%   4.0%   24.3%   NA    
Visual hallucinations 0%   2.5%   17.6%   NA    
Auditory hallucinations 0%   2.5%   12.8%   NA    
Olfactory/taste hallucinations 0%   3.6%   12.8%   NA    
Visual illusion 0%   2.5%   12.3%   NA    
Delusion 0%   1.1%   12.8%   NA    
Parkinsonismc 0%   24.4%   55.4%   NA    
Facial expression (0/1/2/3/4) 100/0/0/0/0   88.8/10.9/0.4/0/0   62.8/31.7/3.4/2.1   NA    
Rigidity 100/0/0/0/0   91.7/7.1/1.1/0/0   77.9/17.2/4.1/0.7/0   NA    
Akinesia 100/0/0/0/0   87.2/12.8/0/0/0   71.0/23.4/4.1/0.7/0.7   NA    
Falls 1.5%   3.3%   9.6%   NA    
Fluctuations 0%   5.1%   42.6%   NA    
Drowsiness/lethargy 10%   22.9%   53.4%   NA    
Sleep > 2 h 0.6%   3.6%   20.3%   NA    
Staring into space 0.4%   4.7%   18.4%   NA    
Disorganized speech 2.1%   5.8%   32.0%   NA    
Memory complainta 5 (3.0; 6.0) 5 (3.0; 7.0) 6 (4.0; 7.0) 0.0021 1.00 0.0011 0.017
Attentional complainta 4 (3.0; 6.0) 5 (3.0; 6.0) 6 (4.0; 7.0) 0.0001 0.62 < 0.0001 0.0003
FCSRT sum of 3 free recalla 30 (24.0; 35.0) 29 (24.0; 34.0) 28 (23.0; 34.0) 0.25 1.00 0.32 0.48
Fluency letter Pa 21 (16.0; 26.0) 21 (17.0; 26.0) 20 (14.0; 25.0) 0.15 1.00 0.23 0.22
Fluency animalsa 29 (23.0; 35.0) 28 (22.0; 34.0) 27 (20.0; 32.0) 0.0065 0.17 0.0093 0.49
Rey figure3min recalla 18 (11.0; 23.0) 16.5 (10.0; 21.0) 16 (10.3; 22.0) 0.128 0.21 0.49 1.00
TMT A s/good movea 1.7 (1.4; 2.3) 1.8 (1.3; 2.3) 1.9 (1.5; 2.5) 0.030 1.00 0.040 0.054
TMT B s/ good movea 3.6 (2.6; 5.0) 3.6 (2.7; 5.1) 4.2 (2.8; 5.6) 0.074 1.00 0.074 0.20
VOSP position discriminationa 20 (19.0; 20.0) 20 (19.0; 20.0) 20 (19.0; 20.0) 0.0022 1.00 0.0015 0.045
VOSP number locationa 9 (8.0; 10.0) 10 (9.0; 10.0) 9 (9.0; 10.0) 0.68 1.00 1.00 1.00
VOSP fragmented lettersa 20 (19.0; 20.0) 20 (19.0; 20.0) 20 (19.0; 20.0) 0.041 1.00 0.041 0.129
Cognitive profile,N(%) .   .   .   0.0003 0.92 0.0052 0.092
SCI 125 (27.4) 69 (25.6) 28 (19.7)     
Pure a-MCI 26 (5.7) 30 (11.1) 12 (8.5)     
Multidomain a-MCI 135 (29.6) 83 (30.7) 55 (38.7)     
Pure na-MCI 114 (25.0) 60 (22.2) 17 (12.0)     
Multidomain na-MCI 56 (12.3) 28 (10.4) 30 (21.1)     
NPI-C ≥ 1 depression,N(%) 32.5%   36.9%   49.2%   0.0032 0.71 0.0024 0.075
MINI 500 depression,N(%) 6.7%   11.1%   26.2%   < 0.0001 0.12 < 0.0001 < 0.0001
NPI-C ≥ 1 anxiety,N(%) 43.9%   45.8%   61.0%   0.0033 1.00 0.0029 0.018
NPI-C ≥ 1 apathy,N(%) 17.8%   25.1%   36.1%   < 0.0001 0.071 < 0.0001 0.086
  1. Abbreviations: a-MCI amnestic mild cognitive impairment, ATD antidepressant, ChEI cholinesterase inhibitor, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, Dopa= L-Dopa, FAB Frontal Assessment Battery, MMSE Mini-Mental Status Examination, na-MCI non-amnestic MCI, NL neuroleptics, N number, RBD rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, SCI subjective cognitive impairment, TMTA Trail Making Test A TMTB, Trail Making Test B, UPDRS Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale
  2. aMedian (Q1 = first quartile − Q3 = third quartile)
  3. bSchool leaving certificate; percentage
  4. cAs rated on UPDRS, out of 4
  5. *P-values for post hoc pairwise comparisons were adjusted with Bonferoni correction and then rescaled to keep an α = 0.05 statistically significant threshold for readability reason