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Table 5 AD biomarkers used in assessing disease state or prognosis: potential surrogate markers

From: Meaningful benefits: a framework to assess disease-modifying therapies in preclinical and early Alzheimer’s disease

Source Biomarkers
Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 (alone or when measured as a ratio with Aβ40, total tau, or p-tau)
Total tau
Phosphorylated-tau (p-tau; alone or when measured as a ratio with Aβ42)
β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2)
YKL-40
Neurogranin
Synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25)
Synaptotagmin
Visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1)
Neurofilament light (NfL)
Blood p-tau 181; p-tau 217
Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio
Neurofilament light (NfL)
Imaging Amyloid PET
Tau PET
MRI atrophy
FDG PET hypometabolism
  1. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, FDG PET fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, PET positron emission tomography