Skip to main content

Table 3 Association between stimulated oxygenation difference in the orbitofrontal cortex and cognitive impairment-related outcomes (secondary endpoints)

From: Novel diagnostic tools for identifying cognitive impairment using olfactory-stimulated functional near-infrared spectroscopy: patient-level, single-group, diagnostic trial

Variables Oxygenation difference in the orbitofrontal cortex Crude model Adjusted modela
β (95% CI) P value β (95% CI) P value
Mini-Mental State Examination Olfactory stimulation 0.957 (0.512 to 1.403) <0.001 1.001 (0.540 to 1.463) <0.001
None −0.110 (−0.680 to 0.461) 0.704 0.007 (−0.569 to 0.583) 0.981
SNSB attention Olfactory stimulation 1.654 (−0.426 to 3.734) 0.118 1.828 (−0.315 to 3.970) 0.179
None −0.618 (−3.098 to 1.861) 0.622 −0.440 (−2.916 to 2.037) 0.725
SNSB language and related function Olfactory stimulation 1.292 (0.129 to 2.454) 0.030 1.218 (0.020 to 2.417) 0.046
None −0.795 (−2.192 to 0.601) 0.261 −0.961 (−2.367 to 0.445) 0.178
SNSB visuospatial function Olfactory stimulation 0.679 (−0.076 to 1.434) 0.077 0.626 −0.155 to 1.408) 0.115
None −0.105 (−1.006 to 0.796) 0.818 −0.072 (−0.973 to 0.829) 0.875
SNSB memory Olfactory stimulation 1.830 (0.802 to 2.858) 0.001 1.963 (0.841 to 3.084) 0.001
None −0.394 (−1.676 to 0.888) 0.544 −0.361 −1.717 to 0.994) 0.598
SNSB frontal/executive function Olfactory stimulation 1.817 (0.557 to 3.078) 0.005 1.715 (0.401 to 3.029) 0.011
None −0.323 (−1.865 to 1.219) 0.678 −0.361 (−1.908 to 1.186) 0.644
Standard uptake value ratio Olfactory stimulation 9.462 (18.062 to0.862) 0.031 10.083 (19.063 to1.103) 0.028
None 0.391 (−9.878 to 10.660) 0.076 −2.514 (−12.817 to 7.790) 0.629
Hippocampal volume Olfactory stimulation 0.002 (0.001 to 0.003) 0.007 0.002 (0.001 to 0.004) 0.005
None −0.001 (−0.003 to 0.001) 0.278 −0.001 (−0.002 to 0.001) 0.543
  1. Numbers in bold indicate statistically significant associations (P < 0.05)
  2. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, CN cognitively normal, MCI mild cognitive impairment, SNSB Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery
  3. aRisk factors were adjusted for age, sex, education (continuous), household income (low, middle, and high), smoking (never or ex-smoker and current smoker), and Charlson comorbidity index (0, 1, and ≥2)