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Table 2 Association between stimulated oxygenation difference in the orbitofrontal cortex and cognitive impairment (primary endpoint)

From: Novel diagnostic tools for identifying cognitive impairment using olfactory-stimulated functional near-infrared spectroscopy: patient-level, single-group, diagnostic trial

Oxygenation difference in the orbitofrontal cortex Model CN MCIc AD P trend
Olfactory stimulation Mean (95% CI) 5.94 (3.13 to 8.74) −0.22 (−2.48 to 2.04) −3.96 (−5.69 to −2.23)  
Adjusted mean difference (model 1a) 1.00 (reference) 6.12 (2.12 to 10.13) 9.93 (5.10 to 14.76) <0.001
Adjusted mean difference (model 2b) 1.00 (reference) 6.83 (3.15 to 10.51) 9.92 (5.72 to 14.13) <0.001
None Mean (95% CI) 1.63 (−1.67 to 4.93) 1.92 (−2.46 to 6.30) 0.93 (−1.71 to 3.57)  
Adjusted mean difference (model 1a) 1.00 (reference) −0.47 (−5.57 to 4.63) 1.32 (−4.83 to 7.46) 0.872
Adjusted mean difference (model 2b) 1.00 (reference) −0.39 (−7.05 to 6.26) 0.51 (−7.11 to 8.12) 0.870
  1. Numbers in bold indicate statistically significant associations (P < 0.05)
  2. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer’s disease, CN cognitively normal, MCI mild cognitive impairment
  3. aModel 1 was adjusted for age and sex
  4. bModel 2 was adjusted for age, sex, education (continuous), household income (low, middle, and high), smoking (never or ex-smoker and current smoker), and Charlson comorbidity index (0, 1, and ≥2)
  5. cThe diagnostic criteria for MCI were based on the Jak/Bondi comprehensive criteria