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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants at enrollment (n = 97)

From: Novel diagnostic tools for identifying cognitive impairment using olfactory-stimulated functional near-infrared spectroscopy: patient-level, single-group, diagnostic trial

Variables CN MCIa AD
Number (%) 55 (56.7) 26 (26.8) 16 (16.5)
Age, years, median (IQR) 74.0 (70.0–79.0) 74.0 (68.0–78.5) 76.5 (74.0–82.0)
Body mass index, kg/m2, n (%)
 <25 (normal) 35 (63.6) 18 (69.2) 12 (75.0)
 ≥25 (overweight or obese) 20 (36.4) 8 (30.8) 4 (12.5)
Sex, female (%) 28 (50.9) 13 (50.0) 7 (43.8)
Education, years, median (IQR) 9.0 (6.0–14.0) 12.0 (6.0–12.25) 11.0 (8.0–14.8)
Occupation, n (%)
 White collar/professional 20 (36.4) 7 (26.9) 4 (25.0)
 Blue collar 27 (49.1) 16 (61.5) 9 (56.3)
 Household/student/unemployed 8 (14.5) 3 (11.5) 3 (18.8)
Household income, n (%)
 Low (1–29 percentile) 9 (16.4) 7 (26.9) 6 (37.5)
 Middle (30–69 percentile) 24 (43.6) 12 (46.2) 5 (31.3)
 High (70–100 percentile) 22 (40.0) 7 (26.9) 5 (31.3)
Smoking, n (%)
 Never or ex-smoker 52 (94.5) 26 (100.0) 14 (87.5)
 Current smoker 3 (5.5) 0 (0.0) 2 (12.5)
Charlson comorbidity index, n (%)
 0 20 (36.4) 9 (34.6) 6 (37.5)
 1 24 (43.6) 11 (42.3) 5 (31.3)
 ≥2 11 (20.0) 6 (23.1) 5 (31.3)
APOE4 carrier, n (%) 14 (21.2) 18 (85.7) 11 (68.8)
Mini-Mental State Examination, median (range) 28.0 (24.0–30.0) 26.0 (22.0–30.0) 20.0 (10.0–24.0)
Cognitive measures (composite z-score), mean (SD)
 SNSB attention −0.07 (0.92) −0.52 (0.79) −0.61 (0.94)
 SNSB language and related function 0.51 (0.65) 0.02 (1.22) −2.18 (3.22)
 SNSB visuospatial function 1.01 (0.68) 0.17 (1.69) −2.45 (5.00)
 SNSB memory 0.73 (1.08) −0.64 (1.46) −2.73 (1.30)
 SNSB frontal/executive function 0.55 (0.80) −0.47 (1.06) −2.38 (1.53)
Amyloid PET (standard uptake value ratio), mean (SD) 1.13 (0.16) 1.27 (0.26) 1.39 (0.20)
Hippocampal volume, cm3, mean (SD) 7.68 (0.99) 7.01 (1.40) 6.04 (1.27)
  1. Abbreviations: AD Alzheimer disease, CN cognitively normal, IQR interquartile range, MCI mild cognitive impairment, SD standard deviation, SNSB Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery
  2. aThe diagnostic criteria for MCI were based on the Jak/Bondi comprehensive criteria