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Table 4 Linear regression model to explore baseline variables with statistically significant associations with ICA Calcification in baseline

From: Intracranial internal carotid artery calcification is not predictive of future cognitive decline

  Presence vs. absence of ICA calcification §§
Univariable Multivariable
p-value § OR (95% CI) p-value § OR (95% CI) b
Age (years) <0.001 1.136 (1.08–1.195) <0.001 1.11 (1.05–1.175)
Sex (male versus female) <0.001 2.82 (1.54–5.14) 0.078 1.9 (1.03–2.8)
WMH volume (1000 mm3)a 0.058 1.025 (1.0021.049) - -
Total hippocampal volume (100 mm3)a 0.489 0.989 (0.9581.02) - -
AD cortical signature thickness (mm) 0.022 0.053 (0.006–0.480) 0.582 0.499 (0.0425.92)
Centiloid (5 units)a 0.49 0.985 (0.9521.02) - -
  High vs. low ICA calcification §§
Univariable Multivariable
p-value § OR (95%CI) p-value § OR (95%CI) b
Age (years) <0.001 1.11 (1.06–1.164) 0.048 1.085 (1.015–1.159)
Sex (male versus female) 0.005 2.4 (1.40–4.16) 0.168 1.6 (0.8073.42)
WMH volume (1000 mm3)a 0.005 1.030 (1.011–1.048) 0.163 1.012 (0.9911.033)
Total hippocampal volume (100 mm3)a 0.277 0.984 (0.9561.012) - -
AD cortical signature thickness (mm) 0.006 0.056 (0.008–0.397) 0.262 0.964 (0.9211.0080)
Centiloid (5 units)a 0.277 0.982 (0.9501.015) - -
  1. Abbreviations: ICA, internal carotid artery, WMH volume, white matter hyperintensities volume, Centiloid, measure of global amyloid disposition based on conversion of PIB or AV45 PET SUVRs to a standardized scale, AD cortical signature thickness, cortical thickness in signature regions affected in Alzheimer disease (see Dincer et al. 2020), OR (95% CI), odds ratio and 95% confidence interval; the presence or absence of ICA calcification was determined based on natural log transformation of ICA calcium score/volume
  2. aCoefficients are demonstrated for 1000-mm3 increments in WMH volume, 100-mm3 increments in total hippocampal volume, and 5-unit increments in Centiloid scale
  3. bSignificant variables from the univariable model were entered into a stepwise multivariable model where a probability of 0.3 was set to enter the variables into the model and a probability of 0.1 to remove variables from the model
  4. § p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons through estimation of the false discovery rate via the Benjamini and Hochberg method. Tests with a p-value of 0.05 were considered statistically significant in both regression models (denoted in bold).
  5. §§Presence of ICA calcification was defined based on Agatston ICA calcium score/volume using a cut-off of 0. High versus low ICA calcification was determined using the median value for natural log transformation of ICA calcium score/volume as cut-off