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Table 1 Demographic data and biomarker concentrations

From: Plasma Lipocalin 2 in Alzheimer’s disease: potential utility in the differential diagnosis and relationship with other biomarkers

  n Age (mean ± SD) Sex (f/m) MMSE (median, IQR) CSF (mean ± SD) Plasma (mean ± SD)
t-tau (pg/mL) p-tau (pg/mL) Ab42 (pg/mL) LCN2 (ng/mL)
Cohort 1
 HC 84 64.0 ± 5.3 26/58 NA NA NA NA 105.0 ± 53.7
 ND-Dem 25 60.3 ± 15.2 16/9 NA 484 ± 402 NA NA 78.9 ± 28.1
 AD 74 67.6 ± 9.6 38/36 20.0 (9.0)a 622 ± 434 100.5 ± 58.3 489 ± 317 58.3 ± 28.0
  spAD 48 67.4 ± 9.6 22/26 22.5 (8.3) 510 ± 312 85.3 ± 34.1 502 ± 266 63.3 ± 28.3
  rpAD 26 67.8 ± 9.6 16/10 17.0 (10.5) 835 ± 540 125 ± 73.9 384 ± 176 49.1 ± 25.7
 MCI-AD 14 68.7 ± 7.7 6/8 27.0 (3.0) 571 ± 322 88.3 ± 27.6 569 ± 292 103.1 ± 42.2
 MD 7 70.3 ± 10.5 4/3 18.0 (12.5)a 406 ± 284 91.1 ± 27.6 491 ± 253 53.4 ± 23.9
 VaD 28 71.4 ± 9.9 20/8 21 (10.0)a 333 ± 325 47.3 ± 17.8 754 ± 374 135.0 ± 120.3
 VCI-MCI 16 69.5 ± 8.2 11/5 28.0 (2.3) 174 ± 62.0 40.7 ± 10.5 983 ± 195 90.1 ± 24.8
 CJD 84 65.7 ± 11.8 51/33 NA 8859 ± 7463 57.9 ± 19.7 482 ± 286 102.3 ± 58.8
 FTD 30 65.6 ± 11.4 17/13 20.5 (10.3)a 371 ± 401 59.8 ± 43.6 693 ± 293 83.2 ± 59.5
 LBD 45 70.3 ± 9.7 17/28 21.0 (10.3)a 320 ± 210 46.9 ± 25.1 637 ± 287 82.2 ± 31.7
Cohort 2
 HC 28 72.1 ± 6.9b 19/9 NA NA NA NA 97.6 ± 49.0
 Amnestic MCI 27 67.7 ± 9.0 12/15 NA NA NA NA 80.5 ± 21.8
 AD 19 69.7 ± 6.0 8/11 NA 610 ± 314 65.0 ± 28.6 390 ± 108 65.1 ± 21.0
  1. HC Healthy controls, ND-Dem Non-neurodegenerative neurological diseases with dementia syndrome, AD Alzheimer’s disease (dementia), rpAD Rapidly progressive Alzheimer’s disease, spAD Slowly progressive Alzheimer’s disease, MCI-AD Mild cognitive impairment with positive AD-related biomarkers, MD Mixed dementia (AD plus vascular), VaD Vascular dementia, VCI-MCI Mild vascular cognitive impairment, CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, FTD Fronto-temporal dementia, LBD Lewy body diseases (dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia), MMSE Mini Mental Status Examination score, SD Standard error, t-Tau CSF Total tau protein, p-tau CSF Phosphorylated tau protein, Abeta42 CSF beta-amyloid 1-42, SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range
  2. aAvailable MMSE scores (if different from total group size) in AD: n = 71, MD: n = 6, VaD: n = 23, FTD: n = 14; DLB: n = 34
  3. bFor 3 cases, age was not available