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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Cholinergic receptor binding in unimpaired older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease dementia

  Cognitively unimpaired (n = 42) Mild cognitive impairment (n = 28) Alzheimer’s disease (n = 32) Statistics
Male/female 28/14 24/4 32/0 Fisher’s exact test, p < .001
Age, years 72.1 (7.5) 74.6 (8.5) 79.4 (7.6) F(2,99) = 7.97, p = .001
Education, years 16.1 (2.7) 15.4 (2.5) 14.8 (3.5) F(2,98) = 1.64, p = .20
Race/ethnicity, n     Fisher’s exact test, p = .75
 African-American 9 8 9  
 White, non-Hispanic 30 16 21  
 Hispanic 2 2 2  
 Asian American/Pacific Islander 1 2 0  
Duration of dementia, years 4.8 (3.4)  
MMSE 29.3 (1.1) 27.3 (1.9) 19.8 (5.0) F(2,99) = 93.06, p < .001
Dementia Rating Scale total 140.0 (3.65) 133.1 (7.6) 104.5 (24.0) F(2,97) = 60.30, p < .001
Current medications, n (%)
 Cholinesterase inhibitor 1 (2%) 8 (29%) 23 (72%) Fisher’s exact test, p < .001
 Memantine 0 (0%) 3 (11%) 17 (53%) Fisher’s exact test, p < .001
 Antidepressant 6 (14%) 9 (32%) 12 (38%) Fisher’s exact test, p < .001
Trails A, s 39.5 (12.2) 48.3 (16.7) 102.6 (62.0) F(2,92) = 28.62, p < .001
Attention average Z-score − .80 (.61) − 1.36 (.61) − 2.37 (1.19) F(2,92) = 29.25, p < .001
Immediate Memory average Z-score − .16 (.62) − 1.30 (.75) − 2.30 (.52) F(2,92) = 40.99, p < .001
Delayed Memory average Z-score .10 (.64) − 1.50 (.63) − 2.49 (.44) F(2,92) = 102.84, p < .001
Hippocampal volume (% of whole brain) .0050 (.0006) .0046 (.0007) .0038 (.0006) F(2,95) = 30.54, p < .001
  1. Means (SD) are shown for continuous variables; proportions and percentages are shown for sex, race, and current medications. One-way ANOVAs and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare the groups. Sample sizes for the AD group were smaller for some comparisons because of the inability of some AD patients to complete the measure