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Table 5 Clinical characteristics of participants based on cognitive stage transition over the study period

From: Serum neurofilament light chain level as a predictor of cognitive stage transition

  Non-converter
(n = 164)
Converter
(n = 35)
P-value
Demographics
 Age, years 67.9 ± 7.8 75.9 ± 7.2 <0.001**
 Female 97 (59.1) 16 (45.7) 0.145*
 Lives alone 22 (13.4) 7 (20.0) 0.316*
 BMI, kg/m2 24.5 ± 2.9 24.0 ± 2.5 0.363**
 Education, years 10.6 ± 4.8 9.4 ± 5.4 0.192**
MMSE score, median (IQR) 27.0 (24.0-29.0) 23.0 (20.0-26.0) <0.001‡
CDR score, median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 0.0 (0.0-0.5) 0.001‡
CDR-SOB score, median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 0.5 (0.0-1.0) <0.001‡
Gdps score, median (IQR) 7.0 (4.0-11.75) 11.0 (3.0-14.0) 0.090‡
Initial cognitive stage    <0.001*
 Cognitive unimpaired 130 (79.3) 49 (45.7)  
 Mild cognitive impairment 34 (20.7) 19 (54.3)  
Medical history
 Hypertension 73/162 (45.1) 18 (51.4) 0.493*
 Diabetes mellitus 23 (14.0) 10 (28.6) 0.036*
 Dyslipidemia 68/161 (42.2) 8 (22.9) 0.033*
 Coronary artery disease 9 (5.5) 2 (5.7) 1.000†
 Cerebrovascular disease 6 (3.7) 3 (8.6) 0.197†
 Smoking 6 (3.7) 1 (2.9) 1.000†
 Pill intake of more than three 101 (61.6) 19 (54.3) 0.451*
Hippocampal volume, cm3 5.1 ± 0.8 4.4 ± 1.0 <0.001**
Cortical thickness, mm 3.08 ± 0.15 3.05 ± 0.14 0.289*
Positive amyloid pathology‡ 27/152 (17.8) 23/32 (71.9) <0.001*
APOE ε4 carrier 31 (18.9) 12 (34.3) 0.045*
Family history of dementia 43 (26.2) 13 (37.1) 0.393*
Initial serum NFL level, tertile    <0.001*
 Lowest tertile 64 (39.0) 2 (5.7)  
 Middle tertile 54 (32.9) 12 (34.3)  
 Highest tertile 46 (28.0) 21 (60.0)  
  1. IQR interquartile range, NFL neurofilament light chain
  2. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%). unless otherwise indicated
  3. Based on *Pearson’s chi-square test, **Student’s t-test, the †Fisher’s exact test, or ‡Mann-Whitney U test