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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the CU participants according to the initial serum NFL levels

From: Serum neurofilament light chain level as a predictor of cognitive stage transition

  Lowest tertile
(n = 49)
Middle tertile
(n = 49)
Highest tertile
(n = 48)
P-value*
Mean serum NFL, pg/ml 11.9 ± 2.6c 19.1 ± 2.3b 37.2 ± 13.8a <0.001**
Range of serum NFL, pg/ml 6.2 – 15.0 15.1 – 22.6 22.7 – 77.8  
Demographics
 Age, years 63.2 ± 6.4b 69.2 ± 7.3a 71.3 ± 7.3a <0.001**
 Sex, female 36 (73.5) 30 (61.2) 24 (50.0) 0.059*
 Lives alone 7 (14.3) 7 (14.3) 7 (14.6) 0.999*
 BMI, kg/m2 24.2 ± 2.6 25.0 ± 3.5 24.5 ± 2.8 0.469**
 Education, years 12.9 ± 3.8a 10.7 ± 5.3ab 8.8 ± 5.3b <0.001**
MMSE score, median (IQR) 28.0 (27.0 – 29.0)a 28.0 (25.5 - 29.0)a 21.0 (19.5-23.5)b <0.001†
CDR score, median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 0.372†
CDR-SOB score, median (IQR) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 0.0 (0.0-0.0) 0.045†
Gdps score, median (IQR) 7.0 (3.5-12.5) 6.0 (2.5-10.5) 8.0 (4.25-14.0) 0.241†
Medical history
 Hypertension 16 (32.7) 24 (49.0) 26 (56.5) 0.057*
 Diabetes mellitus 4 (8.2) 6 (12.2) 12 (25.0) 0.054*
 Dyslipidemia 18/48 (37.5) 22 (44.9) 21/46 (45.7) 0.673*
 Coronary artery disease 1 (2.0) 3 (6.1) 4 (8.3) 0.174‡
 Cerebrovascular disease 1 (2.0) 1 (2.0) 5 (10.4) 0.055‡
 Smoking 2 (4.1) 0 (0.0) 3 (6.3) 0.565‡
 Pill intake of more than three 40 (81.6)a 27 (55.1)b 24 (50.0)b 0.003*
Hippocampal volume, cm3 5.2 ± 0.9 5.0 ± 0.7 5.0 ± 0.8 0.365**
Cortical thickness, mm 3.13 ± 0.12a 3.10 ± 0.14ab 3.04 ± 0.16b 0.007**
Aβ positivity 6/45 (13.3) 11/45 (24.4) 7/45 (15.6) 0.345*
APOE ε4 carrier 11 (22.4) 11 (22.4) 9 (18.8) 0.877*
Family history of dementia 15 (30.6) 10 (20.4) 12 (25.0) 0.508*
Cognitive stage transition 1 (2.0)b 6 (12.2)ab 9 (18.8)a 0.029*
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%), unless otherwise indicated
  2. NFL neurofilament light chain, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, IQR interquartile range, CDR-SOB Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes, Gdps Geriatric Depression Scale, amyloid-beta
  3. Based on *Pearson’s chi-square test, **analysis of variance, the †Kruskal–Wallis test, or ‡linear by linear association
  4. a>b>c. Pearson’s chi-square test with Bonferroni correction or Tukey’s post hoc comparisons was performed to assess for significant differences among the subgroups