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Table 2 Fatty acid-related metabolites identified by lineal modeling to be associated with cognitive decline, ApoE-ε4 genotype and sex

From: Apolipoprotein E and sex modulate fatty acid metabolism in a prospective observational study of cognitive decline

  Whole study population ApoE-ε4 stratification Sex stratification
CD vs. CTL CDε4+ vs. CTLε4+ CDε4- vs. CTLε4- CTLε4+ vs. CTLε4- CDε4+ vs. CDε4- CDF vs. CTLF CDM vs. CTLM CTLF vs. CTLM CDF vs. CDM
Free fatty acids
Myristic acid 1.38 (3.1·10-2) 1.05 (NS) 1.39 (6.0·10-2) 1.12 (NS) 1.08 (NS) 1.53 (3.3·10-2) 1.13 (NS) 1.49 (NS) 2.03 (1.3·10-2)
Palmitic acid 1.09 (NS) 0.50 (5.3·10-2) 1.27 (NS) 2.22 (3.9·10-3) 0.87 (NS) 1.16 (NS) 0.97 (NS) 0.90 (NS) 1.07 (NS)
Palmitoleic acid 1.14 (NS) 0.60 (NS) 1.29 (NS) 2.08 (1.1·10-2) 0.96 (NS) 1.22 (NS) 1.00 (NS) 1.25 (NS) 1.51 (6.4·10-2)
Margaric acid 1.13 (NS) 0.81 (NS) 1.21 (NS) 1.56 (NS) 1.05 (NS) 1.18 (NS) 1.05 (NS) 0.97 (NS) 1.08 (NS)
Stearic acid 1.03 (NS) 0.39
(5.5·10-3)
1.25 (NS) 2.47 (1.7·10-3) 0.78 (NS) 1.07 (NS) 0.96 (NS) 0.88 (NS) 0.98 (NS)
Oleic acid 1.19 (NS) 0.50 (7.8·10-2) 1.41 (2.2·10-2) 2.28 (2.3·10-3) 0.80 (NS) 1.26 (NS) 1.06 (NS) 0.99 (NS) 1.18 (NS)
Linoleic acid 1.22 (9.7·10-2) 0.78 (NS) 1.25 (2.2·10-2) 1.62 (4.4·10-2) 0.94 (NS) 1.29 (6.1·10-2) 1.10 (NS) 0.86 (NS) 1.01 (NS)
Linolenic acid 1.12 (NS) 0.65 (NS) 1.25 (6.7·10-2) 1.74 (9.0·10-3) 0.91 (NS) 1.26 (7.8·10-2) 0.89 (NS) 0.93 (NS) 1.32 (NS)
Arachidonic acid 1.05 (NS) 0.60 (NS) 1.18 (NS) 1.87 (6.0·10-3) 0.95 (NS) 1.15 (NS) 0.89 (NS) 0.78 (8.2·10-2) 1.01 (NS)
Eicosapentaenoic acid 0.99 (NS) 0.68 (7.8·10-2) 1.07 (NS) 1.43 (3.9·10-2) 0.91 (NS) 1.08 (NS) 0.84 (NS) 0.80 (NS) 1.03 (NS)
Docosatetraenoic acid 1.18 (9.7·10-2) 0.73 (NS) 1.30 (1.2·10-2) 1.76 (1.7·10-3) 0.99 (NS) 1.31 (3.3·10-2) 0.97 (NS) 0.81 (8.2·10-2) 1.10 (NS)
Docosapentaenoic acid 1.26 (NS) 0.75 (NS) 1.39 (3.4·10-2) 1.86 (1.7·10-2) 1.01 (NS) 1.38 (3.9·10-2) 1.04 (NS) 0.80 (NS) 1.06 (NS)
Docosahexaenoic acid 1.09 (NS) 0.60 (7.8·10-2) 1.23 (NS) 1.75 (9.0·10-3) 0.86 (NS) 1.24 (NS) 0.85 (NS) 0.74 (5.4·10-2) 1.07 (NS)
Acyl-carnitines
Acetyl-L-carnitine 1.40 (1.6·10-2) 0.88 (NS) 1.54 (4.5·10-3) 1.75 (2.0·10-2) 1.00 (NS) 1.43 (3.3·10-2) 1.35 (NS) 0.96 (NS) 1.02 (NS)
Octanoyl-L-carnitine 1.46 (2.3·10-2) 0.87 (NS) 1.62 (1.2·10-2) 1.50 (NS) 0.80 (NS) 1.60 (3.3·10-2) 1.23 (NS) 0.77 (NS) 1.01 (NS)
Decanoyl-L-carnitine 1.43 (3.2·10-2) 0.79 (NS) 1.61 (1.2·10-2) 1.51 (NS) 0.73 (NS) 1.54 (3.3·10-2) 1.24 (NS) 0.78 (NS) 0.97 (NS)
Undecanoyl-L-carnitine 1.20 (1.6·10-2) 0.96 (NS) 1.25 (9.7·10-3) 1.16 (NS) 0.89 (NS) 1.23 (3.3·10-2) 1.15 (NS) 0.96 (NS) 1.02 (NS)
Lauroyl-L-carnitine 1.44 (1.6·10-2) 0.79 (NS) 1.62 (6.0·10-3) 1.77 (3.6·10-2) 0.87 (NS) 1.56 (3.3·10-2) 1.22 (NS) 0.73 (8.2·10-2) 0.94 (NS)
Myristoyl-L-carnitine 1.34 (1.6·10-2) 0.93 (NS) 1.44 (6.0·10-3) 1.62 (1.2·10-2) 1.04 (NS) 1.39 (3.3·10-2) 1.24 (NS) 0.89 (NS) 1.00 (NS)
Palmitoyl-L-carnitine 1.27 (2.2·10-2) 1.05 (NS) 1.32 (1.2·10-2) 1.44 (4.4·10-2) 1.14 (NS) 1.32 (3.3·10-2) 1.18 (NS) 0.74 (8.2·10-2) 0.82 (NS)
Oleoyl-L-carnitine 1.33 (1.8·10-2) 0.89 (NS) 1.45 (9.7·10-3) 1.58 (8.0·10-2) 0.97 (NS) 1.39 (3.3·10-2) 1.24 (NS) 0.80 (NS) 0.89 (NS)
Linoleoyl-L-carnitine 1.38 (1.6·10-2) 1.11 (NS) 1.43 (9.7·10-3) 1.36 (NS) 1.06 (NS) 1.40 (3.3·10-2) 1.33 (NS) 0.54 (1.2·10-3) 0.57 (1.8·10-3)
Other metabolites
Citric acid 0.95 (NS) 0.35 (5.3·10-2) 1.16 (NS) 2.80 (3.6·10-2) 0.84 (NS) 0.88 (NS) 1.11 (NS) 1.09 (NS) 0.87 (NS)
Oxaloacetic acid 0.97 (NS) 2.88 (NS) 0.78 (NS) 0.41 (7.0·10-2) 1.50 (NS) 0.93 (NS) 1.05 (NS) 0.84 (NS) 0.74 (NS)
Creatine 1.00 (NS) 0.59 (NS) 1.11 (NS) 1.40 (NS) 0.74 (NS) 0.95 (NS) 1.11 (NS) 3.30 (1.7·10-9) 2.84 (3.8·10-8)
Creatinine 1.10 (NS) 1.45 (NS) 1.04 (NS) 0.73 (8.0·10-2) 1.02 (NS) 1.03 (NS) 1.26 (NS) 0.61 (4.9·10-4) 0.50 (1.8·10-9)
Pantothenic acid 1.33 (1.6·10-2) 1.34 (NS) 1.32 (1.2·10-2) 1.23 (NS) 1.25 (NS) 1.37 (3.3·10-2) 1.25 (NS) 1.07 (NS) 1.16 (NS)
  1. The results are expressed as fold changes (i.e., the ratio between the mean concentrations detected in the two study groups being compared), with FDR-corrected p-values in brackets.
  2. Abbreviations: CD, cognitive decline; CTL, control; CDε4+, cognitive decline individuals carrying the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene; CDε4-, cognitive decline individuals non-carrying the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene; CTLε4+, control individuals carrying the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene; CTLε4-, control individuals non-carrying the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene; CDF, cognitive decline female individuals; CDM, cognitive decline male individuals; CTLF, control female individuals; CTLM, control male individuals; NS, non-significant.