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Table 2 Evolution in overall cognitive outcomes, executive function and attention according to plasma MCP-1 status

From: Plasma MCP-1 and changes on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults

  Low-plasma MCP-1a High-plasma MCP-1 Between-group differenceb P value
Within-group evolution
Estimated mean (95% CI)c
Within-group evolution
Estimated mean (95% CI)
Estimated difference (95%CI)
Cognitive Composite Scored,n= 1079
 12 months −0.06 (−0.15, 0.03) −0.13 (−0.19, −0.08) −0.08 (−0.17, 0.02) 0.114
 24 months −0.05 (−0.15, 0.04) −0.18 (−0.18, −0.06) −0.07 (−0.17, 0.03) 0.196
 36 months −0.14 (−0.24, −0.04) −0.24 (−0.31, −0.17) −0.10 (−0.21, 0.02) 0.091
 48 months 0.18 (0.27,0.08) 0.31 (0.39,0.24) 0.14 (0.26,0.02) 0.023
MMSE,n= 1080
 12 months −0.04 (−0.30, −0.22) −0.15 (−0.37, 0.07) −0.11 (−0.38, 0.16) 0.418
 24 months −0.03 (−0.29, 0.23) −0.16 (−0.39, 0.08) −0.12 (−0.41, 0.16) 0.386
 36 months −0.21 (−0.48, 0.06) −0.18 (−0.44, 0.08) 0.03 (−0.29, 0.34) 0.853
 48 months −0.15 (−0.42, 0.13) −0.30 (−0.57, −0.02) −0.15 (−0.48, 0.18) 0.382
CDR sum of boxes,n= 1080
 12 months 0.12 (0.07, 0.16) 0.24 (0.15, 0.34) 0.13 (0.03, 0.23) 0.014
 24 months 0.13 (0.07, 0.18) 0.32 (0.20, 0.43) 0.19 (0.06, 0.32) 0.004
 36 months 0.23 (0.16, 0.30) 0.36 (0.22, 0.51) 0.14 (−0.03, 0.30) 0.098
 48 months 0.34 (0.26, 0.41) 0.52 (0.35, 0.69) 0.18 (−0.01, 0.38) 0.061
Executive function composite scoree,n= 1068
 12 months −0.03 (−0.07, 0.004) −0.07 (−0.18, 0.04) −0.04 (−0.15, 0.08) 0.544
 24 months −0.07 (−0.11, −0.03) −0.11 (−0.23, 0.004) −0.05 (−0.17, 0.07) 0.452
 36 months −0.12 (−0.17, −0.07) −0.18 (−0.30, −0.05) −0.06 (−0.19, 0.07) 0.381
 48 months −0.15 (−0.19, −0.10) −0.21 (−0.34, −0.08) −0.06 (−0.20, 0.08) 0.379
Attention scoref,n= 1080
 12 months −0.03 (−0.07, 0.004) −0.07 (−0.18, 0.04) −0.04 (−0.15, 0.08) 0.544
 24 months −0.07 (−0.11, −0.03) −0.11 (−0.23, 0.004) −0.05 (−0.17, 0.07) 0.452
 36 months −0.12 (−0.17, −0.07) −0.18 (−0.30, −0.05) −0.06 (−0.19, 0.07) 0.381
 48 months −0.15 (−0.19, −0.10) −0.21 (−0.34, −0.08) −0.06 (−0.20, 0.08) 0.379
  1. Significant associations in bold. Models were adjusted by sex, age, BMI, MAPT group, CDR status at baseline, GDS score, and ApoE ε4 genotype
  2. Abbreviations: MCP-1 Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, CDR Clinical Dementia Rating
  3. aHigh MCP-1 defined as values in the 4th quartile (> 251 pg/mL)
  4. bNegative values for within-group differences mean cognitive decline, except for CDR sum of boxes (for which it is given by positive value)
  5. cNegative values for between-group differences indicate more pronounced cognitive decline among the high-plasma MCP-1 group, except for CDR sum of boxes (for which it is given by positive values)
  6. dBased on the mean z-score of 4 cognitive tests (free and total recall of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding test, 10 MMSE orientation items, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, and Category Naming Test)
  7. eBased on the mean z-score of 3 executive function tests (Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Category Naming Test and the Trail Making Test-Part B)
  8. fBased on the mean z-score of 2 attention tests (Digit Symbol Test and the Trail Making Test-Part A)