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Table 1 Visual MRI rating unadjusted means and standard deviations by region and group

From: Structural MRI profiles and tau correlates of atrophy in autopsy-confirmed CTE

  Brain donors with CTE Normal cognition
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Orbital-frontal (axial, 0–4 scale)
N 40 22
 Left orbital-frontal 0.72 (0.78) 0.32 (0.57)
 Right orbital-frontal 0.75 (0.84) 0.32 (0.57)
Dorsolateral frontal (axial, 0–4 scale)
N 40 22
 Left dorsolateral frontal 1.10 (0.93) 0.73 (0.70)
 Right dorsolateral frontal 1.13 (0.91) 0.73 (0.70)
Superior frontal (axial, 0–4 scale)
N 40 22
 Left superior frontal 1.43 (0.90) 1.18 (0.80)
 Right superior frontal 1.48 (0.91) 1.18 (0.80)
Anterior temporal lobe (axial, 0–4 scale)
N 40 22
 Left anterior temporal lobe 1.03 (0.89) 0.64 (0.79)
 Right anterior temporal lobe 1.10 (1.06) 0.59 (0.85)
Parietal-occipital (axial, 0–4 scale)
N 40 22
 Left parietal-occipital 1.72 (1.04) 1.68 (0.89)
 Right parietal-occipital 1.65 (1.00) 1.68 (0.89)
Medial temporal lobe (coronal, 0–4 scale)
N 24 13
 Left medial temporal lobe 1.08 (1.10) 0.54 (0.66)
 Right medial temporal lobe 1.25 (1.03) 0.69 (0.86)
Ventricular enlargement (axial, 0–4 scale)
N 40 22
 Left lateral ventricle 1.57 (0.98) 1.09 (1.27)
 Right lateral ventricle 1.55 (0.99) 1.09 (1.27)
 Third ventricle 1.47 (0.99) 1.05 (1.21)
 Fourth ventricle 0.03 (0.16) 0.0
Corpus callosum (sagittal, 0–4 scale)
N 48 26
 Genu of the corpus callosum 0.79 (1.03) 0.65 (0.89)
 Body of the corpus callosum 1.19 (1.18) 1.04 (1.15)
 Splenium of the corpus callosum 0.54 (0.82) 0.31 (0.55)
Microvascular disease (axial, 0–4 scale)
N 43 26
 Periventricular 1.86 (0.99) 1.85 (1.05)
 Deep white matter 1.70 (0.96) 1.73 (0.87)
Microbleeds, n (%) present
N 25 22
 Deep 2 (8.0) 1 (4.5)
 Frontal lobe 1 (4.0) 1 (4.5)
 Temporal lobe 1 (4.0) 1 (4.5)
 Parietal lobe 2 (8.0) 0
 Occipital lobe 0 0
Cavum septum pellucidum (axial) N (%) N (%)
N 40 22
 Anterior cavum septum pellucidum 13 (32.5) 2 (9.1)
 Posterior cavum septum pellucidum 4 (10.0) 0
  1. Due to missing MRI sequences, sample sizes across the brain regions were reduced and varied. Not all participants had T1, FLAIR, and SWI/GRE sequences in requisite orientations as the sequences and orientations obtained for clinical scans often vary. The sample included participants who had an available MRI regardless of the sequences present and who also met our other eligibility criteria. For example, there are participants who had an available axial FLAIR but no other sequences. There were also four participants who had an MRI but had none of the required sequences to perform the ratings per our methods. Note that these are unadjusted means as compared with the adjusted mean differences in Fig. 2 and Table 2 that account for age