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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: High-intensity physical activity is not associated with better cognition in the elder: evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study

  Overall (n = 4039) Male (n = 2050) Female (n = 1989) P value
Cognitive function
 Episodic memory 3.71 (1.67) 3.72 (1.62) 3.69 (1.73) 0.605
 Mental intactness 8.01 (2.64) 8.46 (2.41) 7.54 (2.78) < 0.001
 Global cognition 11.71 (3.57) 12.18 (3.30) 11.23 (3.76) < 0.001
Physical activity     < 0.001
 None 468 (11.6) 211 (10.3) 257 (12.9)  
 Mild 1002 (24.8) 471 (23.0) 531 (26.7)  
 Moderate 1263 (31.3) 577 (28.1) 686 (34.5)  
 Vigorous 1306 (32.3) 791 (38.6) 515 (25.9)  
Age (years) 58.12 (9.12) 59.26 (9.01) 56.95 (9.10) < 0.001
Education level
 Primary 2536 (62.8) 1128 (55.0) 1408 (70.8) < 0.001
 Secondary 1421 (35.2) 865 (42.2) 556 (28.0)  
 Third 82 (2.0) 57 (2.8) 25 (1.3)  
Marital status     < 0.001
 Married 3613 (89.5) 1874 (91.4) 1739 (87.4)  
 Other 426 (10.5) 176 (8.6) 250 (12.6)  
Residence     < 0.001
 Urban 589 (22.3) 251 (17.5) 338 (28.0)  
 Rural 2053 (77.7) 1186 (82.5) 867 (72.0)  
BMI (kg/m2) 23.49 (4.00) 23.39 (3.92) 23.59 (4.07) 0.101
Health conditions
 Hypertension 929 (23.1) 493 (24.9) 436 (21.4) 0.009
 Diabetes 224 (5.6) 92 (4.5) 132 (6.7) 0.004
 Dyslipidemia 366 (9.2) 170 (8.4) 196 (10.0) 0.096
 Heart diseases 447 (11.1) 184 (9.0) 263 (13.3) < 0.001
Smoking status     < 0.001
 Current 1298 (32.1) 1180 (57.6) 118 (5.9)  
 Former 365 (9.0) 327 (16.0) 38 (1.9)  
 Never 2376 (58.8) 543 (26.5) 1833 (92.2)  
Current drinking     < 0.001
 > Once a month 1115 (27.6) 961 (46.9) 154 (7.7)  
 ≤ Once a month 335 (8.3) 213 (10.4) 122 (6.1)  
 No current drinking 2589 (64.1) 876 (42.7) 1713 (86.1)  
CES-D score 6.00 [3.00, 11.00] 6.00 [3.00, 10.00] 7.00 [4.00, 12.00] < 0.001
  1. Data are the mean (SD), median [IQR] or number (%), as appropriate