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Table 2 Risk of bias analysis for individual studies

From: Machine learning methods for predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease dementia: a systematic review

Author (year) Algorithm Validation Database Total bias
Plant et al. (2010) [24] 0 0 2 2
Chincarini et al. (2011) [25] 0 0 0 0
Costafreda et al. (2011) [26] 1 0 1 2
Filipovych et al. (2011) [27] 0 0 0 0
Hinrichs et al. (2011) [8] 0 0 0 0
Westman et al. (2011) [28] 0 0 1 1
Wolz et al. (2011) [29] 1 0 0 0
Zhang et al. (2011) [30] 0 0 0 0
Batmanghelich et al. (2012) [31] 0 0 0 0
Cheng et al. (2012) [32] 0 0 0 0
Cho et al. (2012) [33] 0 0 0 0
Gray et al. (2012) [34] 0 0 0 0
Li et al. (2012) [35] 1 0 0 1
Toussaint et al. (2012) [36] 1 0 0 1
Wee et al. (2012) [37] 0 0 0 0
Ye et al. (2012) [38] 1 0 0 1
Zhang et al. (2012) [9] 0 0 0 0
Adaszewski et al. (2013) [39] 1 0 0 1
Aguilar et al. (2013) [40] 1 0 1 2
Babu et al. (2013) [41] 0 0 0 0
Casanova et al. (2013) [42] 0 0 0 0
Cheng et al. (2013) [43] 0 0 0 0
Liu, M. et al. (2013) [44] 0 0 0 0
Liu, X. et al. (2013) [45] 0 0 0 0
Wee et al. (2013) [46] 0 0 0 0
Young et al. (2013) [47] 1 0 0 1
Apostolova et al. (2014) [48] 1 0 0 1
Guerrero et al. (2014) [49] 0 0 0 0
Lebedev et al. (2014) [50] 0 0 0 0
Liu, M. et al. (2014) [51] 0 0 0 0
Liu, F. et al. (2014) [52] 0 0 0 0
Min et al. (2014) [53] 0 0 0 0
Suk et al. (2014) [54] 0 0 0 0
Tong et al. (2014) [55] 0 0 0 0
Cabral et al. (2015) [56] 0 0 0 0
Cheng et al. (2015) [57] 0 0 0 0
Cheng et al. (2015) [58] 0 0 0 0
Moradi et al. (2015) [59] 0 0 0 0
Raamana et al. (2015) [60] 0 0 0 0
Ritter et al. (2015) [61] 1 0 0 1
Salvatore et al. (2015) [62] 0 0 0 0
Xu et al. (2015) [63] 0 0 0 0
Ardekani et al. (2016) [64] 1 1 0 2
Cappeci et al. (2016) [65] 0 2 2 4
Collij et al. (2016) [66] 0 0 2 2
Li et al. (2016) [67] 2 0 0 2
Liu et al. (2016) [68] 0 0 0 0
López et al. (2016) [69] 0 0 0 0
Suk et al. (2016) [70] 0 0 0 0
Thung et al. (2016) [71] 0 0 0 0
Vasta et al. (2016) [72] 0 0 0 0
Zhang et al. (2016) [73] 0 0 0 0
Zhang et al. (2016) [74] 0 0 0 0
Ҫitak-Er et al. (2017) [75] 0 0 0 0
Hojjati et al. (2017) [76] 0 0 0 0
Long et al. (2017) [77] 0 0 0 0
Mathotaarachchi et al. (2017) [78] 0 0 0 0
Suk et al. (2017) [79] 0 0 0 0
Tong et al. (2017) [80] 0 0 0 0
Choi et al. (2018) [81] 0 0 0 0
Donnelly-Kehoe et al. (2018) [82] 1 0 0 1
Gao et al. (2018) [83] 1 0 0 1
Gómez-Sancho et al. (2018) [84] 0 0 0 0
Hojjati et al. (2018) [85] 1 0 0 1
Khanna et al. (2018) [86] 0 0 0 0
Lin et al. (2018) [87] 0 0 0 0
Liu et al. (2018) [88] 0 0 0 0
Liu et al. (2018) [89] 0 0 0 0
Lu et al. (2018) [90] 0 0 0 0
Minhas et al. (2018) [91] 0 0 0 0
Popuri et al. (2018) [92] 2 0 0 2
Sorensen et al. (2018) [93] 0 0 0 0
Sun et al. (2018) [94] 0 0 0 0
Wu et al. (2018) [95] 0 0 0 0
Yan et al. (2018) [96] 0 0 0 0
Basaia et al. (2019) [97] 0 0 0 0
Cheng et al. (2019) [98] 0 0 0 0
Collazos-Huertas et al. (2019) [99] 1 0 0 1
Elahifasaee et al. (2019) [100] 0 0 0 0
Ezzati et al. (2019) [101] 1 0 0 1
Gupta et al. (2019) [102] 0 0 0 0
Lee et al. (2019) [103] 0 0 0 0
Lee et al. (2019) [104] 0 0 0 0
Lei et al. (2019) [105] 0 0 0 0
Li et al. (2019) [106] 0 0 0 0
Li et al. (2019) [107] 0 0 0 0
Oh et al. (2019) [108] 0 0 0 0
Pan et al. (2019) [109] 0 0 0 0
Pusil et al. (2019) [110] 0 0 2 2
Spasov et al. (2019) [111] 0 0 0 0
Wang et al. (2019) [112] 1 0 0 1
Wee et al. (2019) [113] 0 0 0 0
Xu et al. (2019) [114] 0 0 0 0
Zhou et al. (2019) [115] 0 0 0 0
Zhu et al. (2019) [116] 0 0 0 0
Abrol et al. (2020) [117] 0 0 0 0
Gao et al. (2020) [118] 0 0 0 0
Giorgio et al. (2020) [119] 1 0 0 1
Khatri et al. (2020) [120] 0 0 0 0
Lin et al. (2020) [121] 0 0 0 0
Lin et al. (2020) [122] 0 0 0 0
Pan et al. (2020) [123] 0 0 0 0
Ramon-Julvez et al. (2020) [124] 1 0 0 1
Xiao et al. (2020) [125] 0 0 0 0
Xu et al. (2020) [126] 0 0 2 2
Yang et al. (2020) [127] 1 0 0 1
Yee et al. (2020) [128] 0 0 0 0
Zhou et al. (2020) [129] 0 0 0 0
Bae et al. (2021) [130] 0 0 0 0
Mofrad et al. (2021) [131] 1 0 0 1
Mofrad et al. (2021) [132] 1 0 0 1
Pan et al. (2021) [133] 0 0 0 0
Shen et al. (2021) [134] 0 0 0 0
Syaifullah et al. (2021) [135] 1 0 0 1
Wen et al. (2021) [136] 1 0 0 1
Zhang et al. (2021) [137] 0 0 0 0
Zhu et al. (2021) [138] 0 0 0 0
Total 28/234 3/234 13/234 43/702
  1. Note. This table shows the results of the bias analysis performed based on Higgins et al. [22] with the punctuations specified in Table 1