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Table 4 Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported and self-reported in subgroup analysis of the THERAD study (results from linear mixed models in modified intention-to-treat population). 1Mean (95%CI): estimated with the mean values at baseline

From: Impact of an educational programme on Alzheimer’s disease patients’ quality of life: results of the randomized controlled trial THERAD

   Estimated change from baseline
mean1 (95%CI)
Estimated differences in change from baseline
mean (95%CI)
p value
Estimated change from baseline
mean1 (95%CI)
Estimated differences in change from baseline
mean (95%CI)
p value
Estimated change from baseline
mean1 (95%CI)
Estimated differences in change from baseline
mean (95%CI)
p value
   Intervention Control Intervention vs Control Intervention Control Intervention vs Control Intervention Control Intervention vs Control
Outcome Subgroup M2–M0 M6–M0 M12–M0
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 1. tot Zarit: > 40 0.33 [− 1.48 to 2.14] − 0.74 [− 2.40 to 0.92] 1.07 [− 1.32 to 3.45]
p = 0.3783
0.92 [− 0.71 to 2.56] − 1.02 [− 2.48 to 0.44] 1.95 [− 0.17 to 4.06] p = 0.0709 1.82 [− 0.70 to 4.34] − 1.45 [− 3.66 to 0.76] 3.27 [− 0.03 to 6.57]
p = 0.0523
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 2. tot Zarit: [20;40] 1.31 [− 0.09 to 2.70] − 0.34 [− 1.72 to 1.03] 1.65 [− 0.31 to 3.61]
p = 0.0985
0.21 [− 0.99 to 1.41] − 0.61 [− 1.81 to 0.60] 0.82 [− 0.88 to 2.51]
p = 0.3438
− 1.44 [− 3.06 to 0.19] − 1.00 [− 2.75 to 0.75] − 0.44 [− 2.83 to 1.95]
p = 0.7185
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 3. tot Zarit: ≤ 20 0.45 [− 1.10 to 2.00] 2.00 [0.17 to 3.84] − 1.55 [− 3.88 to 0.78]
p = 0.1898
− 0.20 [− 1.61 to 1.20] 1.58 [0.00 to 3.16] − 1.78 [− 3.81 to 0.24]
p = 0.0835
− 1.18 [− 3.17 to 0.80] 0.94 [− 1.24 to 3.13] − 2.13 [− 5.01 to 0.76]
p = 0.1468
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 4. tot Zarit: > 40 vs ≤ 20    2.62 [− 0.71 to 5.95]
p = 0.1226
   3.73 [0.80 to 6.66]
p = 0.0129*
   5.40 [1.01 to 9.79]
p = 0.0163*
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 5. tot Zarit: [20;40] vs ≤ 20    3.20 [0.16 to 6.24]
p = 0.0390*
   2.60 [− 0.03 to 5.23]
p = 0.0530
   1.69 [− 2.05 to 5.43]
p = 0.3719
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 1. tot MMS: ≤ 15 1.33 [− 0.36 to 3.02] 0.14 [− 1.44 to 1.72] 1.19 [− 1.12 to 3.50]
p = 0.3112
0.60 [− 0.94 to 2.14] − 0.25 [− 1.60 to 1.11] 0.85 [− 1.21 to 2.90]
p = 0.4158
− 0.49 [− 2.78 to 1.80] − 0.83 [− 2.86 to 1.21] 0.33 [− 2.73 to 3.40]
p = 0.8296
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 2. tot MMS: [15;20] 1.08 [− 0.34 to 2.51] 0.36 [− 1.04 to 1.75] 0.73 [− 1.26 to 2.72]
p = 0.4713
0.59 [− 0.67 to 1.84] − 0.05 [− 1.28 to 1.18] 0.63 [− 1.12 to 2.39]
p = 0.4781
− 0.16 [− 1.96 to 1.64] − 0.65 [− 2.44 to 1.14] 0.49 [− 2.05 to 3.02]
p = 0.7059
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 3. tot MMS: > 20 − 0.08 [− 1.62 to 1.47] − 0.49 [− 2.39 to 1.41] 0.41 [− 2.04 to 2.86]
p = 0.7413
− 0.72 [− 2.07 to 0.63] − 0.33 [− 2.02 to 1.37] − 0.39 [− 2.56 to 1.77]
p = 0.7198
− 1.68 [− 3.62 to 0.25] − 0.08 [− 2.59 to 2.43] − 1.60 [− 4.77 to 1.57]
p = 0.3190
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 4. tot MMS: ≤ 15 vs > 20    0.78 [− 2.62 to 4.18]
p = 0.6518
   1.24 [− 1.77 to 4.26]
p = 0.4167
   1.94 [− 2.49 to 6.36]
p = 0.3882
Patient’s QOL caregiver-reported 5. tot MMS: [15;20] vs > 20    0.32 [− 2.86 to 3.49]
p = 0.8435
   1.03 [− 1.78 to 3.83]
p = 0.4710
   2.09 [− 1.98 to 6.16]
p = 0.3123
Self-reported QOL 1. tot Zarit: > 40 0.56 [− 1.76 to 2.88] − 4.13 [− 6.60 to − 1.66] 4.69 [1.30 to 8.08]
p = 0.0069*
1.33 [− 0.62 to 3.27] − 2.99 [− 4.94 to − 1.03] 4.31 [1.54 to 7.08]
p = 0.0026*
2.47 [− 0.17 to 5.11] − 1.27 [− 4.56 to 2.02] 3.74 [− 0.49 to 7.98]
p = 0.0830
Self-reported QOL 2. tot Zarit: [20;40] 1.13 [− 0.69 to 2.94] 0.52 [− 1.28 to 2.31] 0.61 [− 1.94 to 3.15]
p = 0.6383
1.22 [− 0.24 to 2.68] 0.40 [− 1.10 to 1.90] 0.82 [− 1.26 to 2.90]
p = 0.4368
1.37 [− 0.52 to 3.26] 0.23 [− 1.74 to 2.20] 1.14 [− 1.58 to 3.86]
p = 0.4102
Self-reported QOL 3. tot Zarit: ≤ 20 0.42 [− 1.43 to 2.28] − 0.66 [− 2.76 to 1.44] 1.08 [− 1.70 to 3.86]
p = 0.4428
0.51 [− 1.02 to 2.05] − 0.56 [− 2.32 to 1.20] 1.08 [− 1.24 to 3.39]
p = 0.3580
0.64 [− 1.35 to 2.64] − 0.42 [− 2.73 to 1.89] 1.06 [− 1.97 to 4.10]
p = 0.4908
Self-reported QOL 4. tot Zarit: > 40 vs ≤ 20    3.61 [− 0.77 to 7.99]
p = 0.1058
   3.24 [− 0.36 to 6.83]
p = 0.0769
   2.68 [− 2.51 to 7.86]
p = 0.3101
Self-reported QOL 5. tot Zarit: [20;40] vs ≤ 20    − 0.48 [− 4.24 to 3.29]
p = 0.8030
   − 0.26 [− 3.36 to 2.85]
p = 0.8705
   0.08 [− 3.99 to 4.14]
p = 0.9706
Self-reported QOL 1. tot MMS: ≤ 15 1.17 [− 1.33 to 3.67] − 1.30 [− 4.10 to 1.49] 2.47 [− 1.27 to 6.22]
p = 0.1947
1.52 [− 0.54 to 3.58] − 0.60 [− 3.05 to 1.84] 2.12 [− 1.07 to 5.32]
p = 0.1910
2.05 [− 0.79 to 4.89] 0.44 [− 3.82 to 4.71] 1.61 [− 3.52 to 6.74]
p = 0.5381
Self-reported QOL 2. tot MMS: [15;20] 1.65 [− 0.19 to 3.48] − 1.06 [− 2.78 to 0.67] 2.70 [0.18 to 5.23]
p = 0.0360*
1.63 [0.12 to 3.13] − 0.92 [− 2.34 to 0.49] 2.55 [0.47 to 4.63]
p = 0.0166*
1.60 [− 0.30 to 3.49] − 0.72 [− 2.57 to 1.13] 2.32 [− 0.34 to 4.97]
p = 0.0872
Self-reported QOL 3. tot MMS: > 20 − 0.41 [− 2.22 to 1.40] − 0.69 [− 2.80 to 1.42] 0.28 [− 2.50 to 3.06]
p = 0.8432
0.04 [− 1.45 to 1.53] − 0.55 [− 2.30 to 1.21] 0.59 [− 1.72 to 2.89]
p = 0.6140
0.73 [− 1.26 to 2.72] − 0.33 [− 2.69 to 2.04] 1.05 [− 2.04 to 4.15]
p = 0.5036
Self-reported QOL 4. tot MMS: ≤ 15 vs > 20    2.19 [− 2.48 to 6.86]
p = 0.3556
   1.54 [− 2.42 to 5.49]
p = 0.4434
   0.55 [− 5.46 to 6.57]
p = 0.8563
Self-reported QOL 5. tot MMS: [15;20] vs > 20    2.43 [− 1.32 to 6.17]
p = 0.2029
   1.96 [− 1.12 to 5.04]
p = 0.2097
   1.26 [− 2.79 to 5.31]
p = 0.5394