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Table 1 Baseline dyads’ characteristics

From: Impact of an educational programme on Alzheimer’s disease patients’ quality of life: results of the randomized controlled trial THERAD

A. Patients’ characteristics* Total population
n = 195
Mean (SD) or n (%)
Group
Intervention n = 98
Mean (SD) or n (%)
Control n = 97
Mean (SD) or n (%)
Sociodemographic data
Age (years) 82.03 (5.88) 81.94 ( 6.38) 82.12 (5.36)
 1: < 75 years 22 (11.28%) 81.94 (5,88) 82.12 (5.36)
 2: [75–85[ years 108 (55.38%) 13 (13.27%) 9 (9.28%)
 3: ≥ 85 years 65 (33.33%) 49 (50.00%) 59 (60.82%)
Women 132 (67.69%) 66 (67.35%) 66 (68.04%)
Educational level
 Elementary or no formal 51 (26.15%) 20 (20.41%) 31 (31.96%)
 Primary school certificate or less 60 (30.77%) 36 (36.73%) 24(24.74%)
 Secondary education/high school 51 (26.15%) 25 (25.51%) 26 (26.80%)
 Bachelor’s degree and higher 33 (16.92%) 17 (17.35%) 16 (16.49%)
Professional activity in the past 173 (88.72%) 88 (89.80%) 85 (87.63%)
Living in a marital status 111 (56.92%) 56 (57.14%) 55 (56.70%)
Alzheimer’s disease 161 (82.56%) 87 (88.78%) 74 (76.29%)
Mixed dementia (AD and vascular) 34 (17.44%) 11 (11.22%) 23 (23.71%)
MMSE mean (SD) 17.65 (4.11) 18.12 (4.04) 17.16 (4.14)
Stage of severity (MMSE)
[21–26] 51 (26.15%) 30 (30.61%) 21 (21.65%)
[15;20] 77 (39.49%) 38 (38.78%) 39 (40.21%)
[11–15] 67 (34.36%) 30 (30.61%) 37 (38.14%)
Time elapsed since diagnosis (months), (n = 176) 14.57 (19.25) 12.44 (18.97) 16.80 (19.39)
Comorbidities CIRS-G 9.91 (3.85) 9.30 (3.82) 10.53 (3.80)
Functional autonomy
 ADL 5.33 (0.89) 5.42 (0.79) 5.23 (0.97)
 Score < 6/6 (at least one incapacity) 101 (51.79%) 46 (46.94%) 55 (56.70%)
 IADL (n = 193) 1.61 (1.23) 1.63 (1.24) (1.22)
 Score 0–1 (≥ 4 incapacities) 102 (52.85%) 52 (54.17%) 50 (51.55%)
Gait and balance one leg balance < 5 s (n = 184) 121 (65.76%) 60 (64.52%) 61 (67.03%)
Visual impairment 111 (56.92%) 56 (57.14%) 55 (56.70%)
Hearing impairment 40 (20.51%) 17 (17.35%) 23 (23.71%)
Quality of life hetero-assessed by caregivers (n = 185) 28.61 (5.24) 29.33 (5.12) 27.84 (5.27)
Quality of life self-assessed by patients (n = 145) 33.93 (6.03) 33.66 (5.53) 34.24 (6.59)
Behavioural and psychological symptoms
 NPI total score (n = 178) 21.77 (18.40) 22.25 (18.82) 21.26 (18.05)
 Delusions 43 (22.05%) 17 (17.35%) 26 (26.80%)
 Hallucinations (n = 194) 38 (19.59%) 13 (13.40%) 25 (25.77%)
 Agitation or aggressiveness (n = 193) 105 (54.40%) 50 (51.02%) 55 (57.89%)
 Depression/dysphoria (n = 194) 116 (59.79%) 59 (60.82%) 57 (58.76%)
 Anxiety (n = 194) 140 (72.16%) 74 (75.51%) 66 (68.75%)
 Euphoria 41 (21.03%) 23 (23.47%) 18 (18.56%)
 Apathy 115 (58.97%) 51 (52.04%) 64 (65.98%)
 Disinhibition, (n = 190) 51 (26.84%) 20 (20.83%) 31 (32.98%)
 Irritability (n = 194) 125 (64.43%) 61 (62.24%) 64 (66.67%)
 Aberrant motor activity (n = 194) 40 (20.62%) 21 (21.43%) 19 (19.79%)
 Sleep disorders (n = 192) 73 (38.02%) 35 (36.08%) 38 (40.00%)
 Eating disorders (n = 192) 76 (39.58%) 37 (38.54%) 39 (40.63%)
Pharmacological therapies
 Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or NMDA receptor blocker 96 (49.23%) 43 (43.88%) 53 (54.64%)
 Psychotropes 46 (23.59%) 25 (25.51%) 21 (21.65%)
 Antipsychotic drug 5 (2.56%) 1 (1.02%) 4 (4.12%)
 Anxiolytics 19 (9.74%) 8 (8.16%) 11 (11.34%)
 Sedative 8 (4.10%) 7 (7.14%) 1 (1.03%)
 Antidepressant therapy 26 (13.33%) 14 (14.29%) 12 (12.37%)
Nonpharmacological therapies
 Physical therapist 27 (13.85%) 13 (13.27%) 14 (14.43%)
 Ergotherapist 4 (2.05%) 2 (2.04%) 2 (2.06%)
 Psychologist 1 (0.51%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.03%)
 Speech therapist 24 (12.31%) 19 (19.39%) 5 (5.15%)
 Day care centre 12 (6.15%) 6 (6.12%) 6 (6.19%)
 Home help (daily living activities) 38 (19.49%) 18 (18.37%) 20 (20.62%)
 Domestic help (cleaning) 23 (11.79%) 15 (15.31%) 8 (8.25%)
 Nurse 58 (29.74%) 26 (26.53%) 32 (32.99%)
 Specialized nurse 6 (3.08%) 3 (3.06%) 3 (3.09%)
Home meal deliveries 2 (1.03%) 1 (1.02%) 1 (1.03%)
B. Caregivers’ characteristics a Total population
n = 195
Group
Intervention
n = 98
Control
n = 97
Sociodemographic data
Age (years) 65.75 (12.62) 66.13 (12.59) 65.36 (12.69)
≤ 65 106 (54.36%) 49 (50.00%) 57 (58.76%)
 > 65 89 (45.64%) 49 (50.00%) 40 (41.24%)
Gender = women 126 (64.62%) 60 (61.22%) 66 (68.04%)
Educational level, (n = 192 )
 Primary school certificate or less 29 (15.10%) 14 (14.43%) 15 (15.79%)
 Secondary education/high school 60 (31.25%) 30 (30.93%) 30 (31.58%)
 Bachelor’s degree and higher 103 (53.65%) 53 (54.64%) 50 (52.63%)
Professionally active (or in the past) (n = 191) 179 (93.72%) 92 (94.85%) 87 (92.55%)
Caregiver status
 Child 102 (52.31%) 48 (48.98%) 54 (55.67%)
 Spouse 83 (42.56%) 44 (44.90%) 39 (40.21%)
 Brother or sister 1 (0.51%) 0 (0.00%) 1 (1.03%)
 Nephew/niece 3 (1.54%) 1 (1.02%) 2 (2.06%)
 Daughter-in-law or son-in-law 6 (3.08%) 5 (5.10%) 1 (1.03%)
Living in a marital status 160 (82.05%) 85 (86.73%) 75 (77.32%)
Living arrangement
 Caregiver living at home with the patient 104 (53.33%) 54 (55.10%) 50 (51.55%)
 Patient and caregiver living apart 91 (46.67%) 44 (44.90%) 47 (48.45%)
 <  6.21 miles 53 (27.18%) 25 (25.51%) 28 (28.87%)
 >  6.21 miles 38 (19.49%) 19 (19.39%) 19 (19.59%)
Length of caregiving (n = 193) years
 1: < 1 year 53 (27.46%) 26 (26.80%) 27 (28.13%)
 2: between 1 and 3 years 84 (43.52%) 42 (43.30%) 42 (43.75%)
 3: > 3 years 56 (29.02%) 29 (29.90%) 27 (28.13%)
Hours of caregiving per week 21.67 (13.66) 22.68 (15.19) 20.65 (11.91)
Medical chronic condition 67 (34.36%) 38 (38.78%) 29 (29.90%)
Level of exhaustion and burden (n = 194)
Zarit score (n = 194) mean 30.89 (15.77) 29.97 (16.19) 31.83 (15.36)
1: [0–20] 58 (29.90%) 41 (41.84%) 40 (41.67%)
2: [20–40] 81 (41.75%) 24 (24.49%) 31 (32.29%)
3: > 40 55 (28.35%) 55 (56.70%) 58 (59.79%)
Quality of life (NHP score) 119.60 (112.00) 119.18 (108.65) 120.02 (115.78)
  1. aThe population size is presented in brackets in case of missing data (n < 195)