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Table 1 Differences in bile acid metabolites and their specific ratios between control and AD groups. Means are expressed in nanomolar or as a ratio of the concentrations. Metabolites and their ratio are stratified by the metabolic affiliations. All tested bile acids and their ratios are presented in Table S3

From: Association of plasma and CSF cytochrome P450, soluble epoxide hydrolase, and ethanolamide metabolism with Alzheimer’s disease

Metabolite p value Mean [95% CI]
Control AD
Neutral vs acidic synthesis pathway
 CA 0.0321 27.4 [20.8–36.2] 19.3 [13.6–27.4]
 CDCA 0.978 38.7 [29.2–51.5] 46.7 [32.6–66.9]
 CA/CDCA 0.0008 0.707 [0.571–0.876] 0.363 [0.271–0.487]
 GCDCA/GDCA 0.5 2.08 [1.66–2.61] 1.97 [1.51–2.57]
 TDCA/TLCA 0.0114 1.33 [1.1–1.62] 1.81 [1.49–2.21]
Conjugation, neutral synthesis pathway
 GDCA/DCA 0.0031 0.719 [0.604–0.856] 1.05 [0.836–1.33]
 TDCA/DCA 0.1 0.0605 [0.0467–0.0783] 0.0777 [0.0556–0.109]
 GCA/CA 0.0104 2.52 [1.86–3.39] 4.13 [2.84–6.01]
 TCA/CA 0.076 0.506 [0.358–0.716] 0.711 [0.434–1.16]
Conjugation, acidic synthesis pathway
 GUDCA/UDCA 0.7 0.546 [0.341–0.876] 0.515 [0.334–0.793]
 TUDCA/UDCA 0.746 2.83 [1.93–4.17] 2.04 [1.33–3.13]
 GCDCA/CDCA 0.491 8.15 [6.21–10.7] 8.36 [5.68–12.3]
 TCDCA/CDCA 0.644 0.734 [0.53–1.01] 0.687 [0.433–1.09]
 TLCA/LCA 0.961 0.282 [0.2–0.396] 0.252 [0.182–0.347]
 GLCA/LCA 0.721 0.711 [0.53–0.955] 0.749 [0.552–1.02]
Conversion of primary to secondary. Gut metagenome activity
 DCA/CA 0.0459 8.01 [5.8–11.1] 12 [7.89–18.1]
 TDCA/CA 0.0056 0.469 [0.309–0.711] 0.906 [0.517–1.59]
 GDCA/CA 0.0007 5.76 [4.01–8.27] 12.5 [7.71–20.2]
 LCA/CDCA 0.451 0.66 [0.419–1.04] 0.589 [0.42–0.825]
 UDCA/CDCA 0.691 1.39 [0.815–2.36] 1.94 [1.23–3.07]
 TUDCA 0.0275 1.07 [0.78–1.48] 1.92 [1.53–2.41]