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Fig. 3 | Alzheimer's Research & Therapy

Fig. 3

From: High-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis promotes neurodegeneration in the triple transgenic (3 × Tg) mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease associated with chronic platelet activation

Fig. 3

Platelets from HFD-treated 3 × Tg mice actively induce the formations of fibrillar Aβ aggregates in association with increased integrin αIIbβ3 and clusterin (CLU) expression. ac The expression of platelet integrin αIIbβ3 determined by flow cytometry (a) and Western blot (b, c) in B6129S wild-type (WT) (n = 2), normal chow-treated (N) 3 × Tg mice (n = 2), and high-fat diet-treated (H) 3 × Tg mice (n = 3). d, e Increased clusterin (CLU) expression in platelets from HFD-treated 3 × Tg mice. Levels of CLU in platelets from 12-month-old 3 × Tg mice after different treatment were determined by Western blotting (d). The relative quantity of CLU proteins is normalized to that of GAPDH and expressed as mean ± SD (n = 4/group) (e). f Representative images of Congo red staining-positive Aβ fibril formation in cultures of mouse platelets from different treatment incubated with soluble Aβ40 (50 μg/ml) for 48 h at 37°C. Scale bar, 50 μm. g Quantification of the number of fibrillar Aβ aggregates (n = 3/group). h Analysis of Aβ fibrils adhere to platelet from HFD-treated 3 × Tg mice by immunofluorescence staining. Platelets (red, staining with anti-GPIba); Aβ (green, staining with anti-Aβ1-16). Scale bar, 50 μm. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, one-way ANOVA (a, c, g) or unpaired Student t test, two-tailed (e). **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****p < 0.0001, n.s., not significant. These experiments were repeated independently at least three times

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