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Table 1 Participant characteristics of the nested case-control study within ESTHER and of ESTHER participants with confirmed Alzheimer’s disease status at the 17-year follow-up

From: Aβ misfolding in blood plasma is inversely associated with body mass index even in middle adulthood

  Nested case-control study within ESTHER ESTHER participants with confirmed AD status from the 17-year follow-up
Characteristics at baseline Aβ misfolding+
n (%)
Aβ misfolding−
n (%)
Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis
n (%)
Participants without dementia diagnosis
n (%)
Total   131 (15.0) 741 (85.0) 146 (2.4) 5841 (97.6)
Age Mean ± SD 68.3 ± 4.9 68.5 ± 4.7 66.7 ± 5.1 61.3 ± 6.5***
50–64 27 (20.6) 137 (18.5) 48 (32.9) 3902 (66.8)***
65–69 39 (29.8) 236 (31.9) 45 (30.8) 1259 (21.6)***
70–75 65 (49.6) 368 (49.7) 53 (36.3) 680 (11.6)***
Sex Female 68 (51.9) 435 (58.7) 89 (61.0) 3184 (54.5)
Male 63 (48.1) 306 (41.3) 57 (39.0) 2657 (45.5)
Education ≤ 9 yrs 115 (87.8) 645 (88.2) 117 (82.4) 4154 (72.7)*
≥ 10 yrs 16 (12.2) 86 (11.8) 25 (17.6) 1561 (27.3)*
APOE ε4+ No 81 (66.9) 484 (74.7) 64 (50.0) 3926 (75.0)***
Yes 40 (33.1) 164 (25.3) 64 (50.0) 1309 (25.0)***
Diabetes No 100 (76.3) 586 (79.1) 116 (79.5) 4950 (85.7)*
Yes 31 (23.7) 155 (20.9) 30 (20.6) 825 (14.3)*
Physical activity Inactive 35 (26.7) 243 (32.8) 49 (33.6) 1061 (18.2)***
Low 68 (51.9) 352 (47.6) 57 (39.0) 2648 (45.4)***
Medium/high 28 (21.4) 145 (19.6) 40 (27.4) 2118 (36.4)***
BMI Mean ± SD 27.1 ± 3.8 28.0 ± 4.2** 27.2 ± 3.9 27.7 ± 4.5
< 25 37 (29.1) 171 (23.8) 45 (31.5) 1612 (28.1)
≥25 90 (70.9) 548 (76.2) 98 (68.5) 4127 (71.9)
Smoking Never 66 (50.8) 396 (55.7) 83 (58.9) 2891 (50.6)
Former 47 (36.2) 234 (32.9) 42 (29.8) 1933 (33.8)
Current 17 (11.4) 81 (11.4) 16 (11.4) 892 (15.6)
Frailty Index Mean ± SD 0.3 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.1***
Non-frail
0 to ≤0.20
31 (34.4) 175 (39.7) 39 (39.4) 2298 (53.3)**
Pre-frail
> 0.20 to < 0.45
50 (55.6) 203 (46.0) 45 (45.5) 1697 (39.4)**
Frail
≥0.45
9 (10.0) 63 (14.3) 15 (15.2) 315 (7.3)**
  1. *p-value of <.05
  2. **p-value of <.01
  3. ***p-value of <.001
  4. p-values derived from the t-test for continuous and chi-square tests for categorical variables