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Table 2 Time spent on the neuropsychological tests. Average time spent (± standard deviation) by the FHS participants on each neuropsychological test is shown. For each test, average values (± standard deviation) were computed on participants with normal cognition (NC), those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those who had dementia (DE); the no dementia group (NDE) combined the NC and MCI individuals. All reported time values are in minutes. Logical Memory (LM) tests with a (†) symbol denote that an alternative story prompt was administered for the test. It is possible that one participant may receive a prompt under each of the LM recall conditions (one recording)

From: Detection of dementia on voice recordings using deep learning: a Framingham Heart Study

  NC MCI NDE DE
Demographics 244.4 ± 151.0 178.7 ± 106.4 231.0 ± 144.4 295.5 ± 163.2
Logical memory immediate recall 135.0 ± 28.6 116.9 ± 19.5 131.6 ± 27.8 128.9 ± 38.5
Logical memory immediate recall (†)     123.0 ± 19.3
Visual reproductions immediate recall 219.3 ± 79.2 190.8 ± 37.9 213.9 ± 73.8 236.1 ± 67.9
Verbal paired associates learning 367.6 ± 80.4 366.4 ± 65.3 367.4 ± 77.3 414.3 ± 155.1
Digit span forward 115.9 ±31.4 100.1 ± 32.3 113.0 ± 31.9 107.5 ± 36.7
Digit span backward 109.0 ±42.5 128.2 ± 44.7 112.6 ± 43.1 132.6 ± 52.6
Logical memory delayed recall 86.3 ± 37.8 57.1 ± 20.2 80.8 ± 36.8 54.0 ± 25.3
Logical memory delayed recall (†)     33.0 ± 7.1
Logical memory multiple choice 89.4 ± 18.3 103.8 ± 31.2 91.9 ± 21.4 138.9 ± 62.3
Logical memory multiple choice (†)     159.5 ± 14.8
Visual reproductions delayed recall 140.6 ± 73.2 114.8 ± 28.3 136.0 ± 67.9 79.1 ± 48.2
Visual reproductions multiple choice 63.5 ± 26.5 60.9 ± 27.8 63.0 ± 26.5 77.5 ±37.1
Verbal paired associates recall 66.2 ± 23.5 85.6 ± 43.7 69.5 ± 28.4 90.3 ± 48.7
Verbal paired associates recognition 75.8 ± 21.6 90.0 ± 26.4 78.3 ± 22.9 126.0 ± 52.2
Similarities 227.8 ± 89.6 217.3 ± 79.5 225.9 ± 87.3 228.0 ± 120.4
Command clock 80.9 ± 31.2 83.3 ± 29.1 81.3 ± 30.5 133.0 ± 82.2
Verbal fluency 325.5 ± 39.0 330.0 ± 29.2 326.3 ± 37.2 336.1 ± 65.4
Boston Naming Test 405.9 ± 176.8 321.2 ± 93.8 390.7 ± 167.4 611.1 ± 260.2
Copy clock 70.1 ± 33.5 54.7 ± 14.0 67.0 ± 31.1 90.9 ± 44.4
Trails A 115.4 ± 58.3 105.3 ± 23.7 113.5 ± 53.3 199.0 ± 107.1
Trails B 219.2 ± 107.6 241.0 ± 117.5 223.4 ± 108.5 431.2 ± 278.0
WRAT-3 reading 119.7 ± 36.8 115.1 ± 52.3 118.8 ± 39.7 142.8 ± 70.4
Hooper visual organization test 398.5 ± 182.1 284.1 ± 90.8 376.6 ± 173.7 424.6 ± 187.4
Block design (WAIS) 357.3 ± 213.6 389.7 ± 145.0 360.9 ± 205.1 487.3 ± 214.3
Finger tapping 294.4 ± 106.9 323.8 ± 87.6 300.3 ± 102.3 289.0 ± 130.6
Information (WAIS-R) 392.7 ± 181.2 335.8 ± 156.9 385.1 ± 176.7 372.7 ± 153.6
Cookie theft 198.9 ± 75.3 244.6 ± 101.7 206.5 ± 79.6 186.9 ± 147.0
Digit symbol coding 204.6 ± 76.1   204.6 ± 76.1 269.5 ± 116.2
Digit symbol learning 125.0 ± 75.7   125.0 ± 75.7 90.6 ± 78.7
Digit symbol recall 67.4 ± 29.8   67.4 ± 29.8 91.4 ± 122.7
Clock drawing number placement 47.6 ± 40.6 51.8 ± 20.5 48.5 ± 37.2 81.6 ± 71.5
Clock drawing time setting 44.0 ± 26.9 37.9 ± 7.6 42.8 ± 24.5 75.3 ± 59.3
Math fluency 53.1 ± 66.0   53.1 ± 66.0 187.4 ± 84.2
Balance physical function test 341.2 ± 80.3   341.2 ± 80.3 202.5 ± 71.4