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Table 1 Demographics and participant characteristics. For each participant, digital voice recordings of neuropsychological examinations were collected. A, B and C show the demographics of the participants with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia, respectively, at the time of the voice recordings. Here, N represents the number of unique participants. The mean age (± standard deviation) is reported at the time of the recordings. Mean MMSE scores (± standard deviation) were computed closest to the time of the voice recording. For cognitively normal participants, ApoE data was unavailable for one Generation 1 (Gen 1) participant and eight Generation (Gen) 2 participants; MMSE data was not collected on Generation (Gen) 3 participants. For MCI participants, ApoE data was unavailable for one Gen 1 participant, six Gen 2 participants, and one New Offspring Spouse Cohort (NOS) participant; MMSE data was also not collected for OmniGen2 and NOS participants and was not available for one Gen 1 participant. For demented participants, ApoE data was unavailable for six Gen 1 participants and three Gen 2 participants; MMSE data was not collected for Gen 3, OmniGen2, and NOS participants and not available for one Gen 1 participant

From: Detection of dementia on voice recordings using deep learning: a Framingham Heart Study

Cohort N Female ApoE4+ Recordings Age (years) Mean MMSE
(A) Normal cases
 Gen 1 42 28 6 75 90.9 ± 3.0 27.5 ± 2.0
 Gen 2 238 117 40 392 73.9 ± 7.8 28.1 ± 2.0
 Gen 3 4 1 0 7 60.4 ± 11.5 NA
 OmniGen 1 7 2 2 9 71.4 ± 9.3 26.6 ± 2.6
 Total 291 148 48 483 76.3 ± 9.8 27.9 ± 2.0
(B) MCI cases
 Gen 1 64 47 13 85 91.4 ± 3.1 26.0 ± 2.4
 Gen 2 235 124 67 353 79.3 ± 6.8 27.2 ± 2.2
 Gen 3 1 0 0 1 60.0 ± 0.0 NA
 OmniGen 1 6 1 1 7 73.1 ± 6.8 25.3 ± 2.3
 OmniGen 2 1 1 1 1 74.0 ± 0.0 NA
 NOS 2 1 0 4 86.5 ± 5.3 NA
 Total 309 174 82 451 81.5 ± 8.0 26.9 ± 2.3
(C) Dementia cases
 Gen 1 78 56 16 99 92.2 ± 3.1 21.3 ± 5.7
 Gen 2 139 84 40 224 82.1 ± 6.7 23.3 ± 5.5
 Gen 3 1 0 0 1 80.0 ± 0.0 NA
 OmniGen 1 3 1 0 4 71.5 ± 1.7 24.8 ± 1.5
 OmniGen 2 1 1 1 1 77.0 ± 0.0 NA
 NOS 1 1 0 1 80.0 ± 0.0 NA
 Total 223 143 57 330 84.9 ± 7.6 22.7 ± 5.6