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Table. 4 Associations Perivascular Spaces in Basal Ganglia and Centrum Semiovale and CSF biomarkers (logistic and multinomial regressions). Models were adjusted by potential demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, as well as, levels of Aβ40. Models were stratified by Aβ42/40 positive status. Legend: n, sample size; SD, standard deviation; ePVS, enlarged Perivascular Spaces; BG, Basal Ganglia; CS, Centrum Semiovale; NTK, NeuroToolKit; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid.

From: Perivascular spaces are associated with tau pathophysiology and synaptic dysfunction in early Alzheimer’s continuum

  All Individuals Aβ42/40 positivity (N=122) Aβ42/40 negativity (N=200)
Outcome Biomarker OR IC Biomarker OR IC Biomarker OR IC
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) Aβ42/40 0.059 [0.025, 0.626] Aβ42/40    Aβ42/40   
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) p-Tau (pg/mL) 0.980 [0.925,1.055] p-Tau (pg/mL) 1.022 [0.937,1.161] p-Tau (pg/mL) 0.887 [0.74,1.061]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) t-Tau (pg/mL) 0.999 [0.991,1.008] t-Tau (pg/mL) 1.004 [0.992,1.022] t-Tau (pg/mL) 0.992 [0.974,1.011]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) GFAP (pg/mL) 0.883 [0.762,0.998] GFAP (pg/mL) 0.873 [0.589,1.254] GFAP (pg/mL) 0.895 [0.758,1.021]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.008 [0.999,1.018] YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.006 [0.987,1.026] YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.010 [0.999,1.023]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.082 [0.917,1.285] TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.127 [0.814,1.583] TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.072 [0.873,1.325]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) IL6 (pg/mL) 1.108 [0.943,1.324] IL6 (pg/mL) 1.192 [0.854,1.708] IL6 (pg/mL) 1.119 [0.918,1.413]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) NFL (pg/mL) 1.000 [0.986,1.014] NFL (pg/mL) 1.031 [0.998,1.07] NFL (pg/mL) 0.991 [0.974,1.009]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.001 [0.999,1.004] Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.002 [0.999,1.007] Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.001 [0.998,1.005]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) S100 (pg/mL) 0.850 [0.177,4.13] S100 (pg/mL) 1.782 [0.086,42.126] S100 (pg/mL) 0.810 [0.115,5.683]
BG (degree 2+3 vs degree 1) α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.001 [0.999,1.002] α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.004 [1,1.018] α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.000 [0.999,1.002]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) Aβ42/40 0.001 [0.00001, 0.0017] Aβ42/40    Aβ42/40   
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) p-Tau (pg/mL) 0.960 [0.878,1.055] p-Tau (pg/mL) 1.064 [0.905,1.301] p-Tau (pg/mL) 0.824 [0.669,1.003]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) t-Tau (pg/mL) 0.995 [0.984,1.005] t-Tau (pg/mL) 1.006 [0.986,1.028] t-Tau (pg/mL) 0.984 [0.964,1.004]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) GFAP (pg/mL) 0.935 [0.806,1.085] GFAP (pg/mL) 1.025 [0.673,1.558] GFAP (pg/mL) 0.921 [0.78,1.095]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) YKL40 (pg/mL) 0.997 [0.988,1.006] YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.010 [0.99,1.033] YKL40 (pg/mL) 0.992 [0.981,1.003]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) TREM2 (pg/mL) 0.899 [0.755,1.067] TREM2 (pg/mL) 0.883 [0.636,1.208] TREM2 (pg/mL) 0.911 [0.724,1.143]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) IL6 (pg/mL) 1.016 [0.866,1.21] IL6 (pg/mL) 1.098 [0.722,1.759] IL6 (pg/mL) 0.991 [0.825,1.212]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) NFL (pg/mL) 0.992 [0.979,1.002] NFL (pg/mL) 0.992 [0.962,1.024] NFL (pg/mL) 0.992 [0.974,1.002]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.001 [0.998,1.003] Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.003 [0.998,1.009] Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.000 [0.997,1.004]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) S100 (pg/mL) 0.960 [0.189,5.014] S100 (pg/mL) 0.445 [0.018,11.609] S100 (pg/mL) 1.155 [0.146,9.506]
CS (degree 2 vs degree 1) α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.003 [1,1.007] α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.013 [0.998,1.038] α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.003 [1,1.007]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) Aβ42/40 ~0 [0,0.8373] Aβ42/40    Aβ42/40   
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) p-Tau (pg/mL) 1.010 [0.946,1.112] p-Tau (pg/mL) 1.152 [0.986,1.487] p-Tau (pg/mL) 0.814 [0.643,1.011]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) t-Tau (pg/mL) 1.000 [0.992,1.011] t-Tau (pg/mL) 1.013 [0.996,1.039] t-Tau (pg/mL) 0.982 [0.959,1.003]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) GFAP (pg/mL) 1.021 [0.876,1.217] GFAP (pg/mL) 1.280 [0.77,2.285] GFAP (pg/mL) 1.009 [0.853,1.226]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.002 [0.993,1.012] YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.010 [0.989,1.036] YKL40 (pg/mL) 0.999 [0.988,1.01]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.017 [0.808,1.279] TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.008 [0.643,1.604] TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.051 [0.78,1.421]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) IL6 (pg/mL) 1.118 [0.885,1.429] IL6 (pg/mL) 1.485 [0.898,3.101] IL6 (pg/mL) 1.079 [0.763,1.484]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) NFL (pg/mL) 0.994 [0.982,1.004] NFL (pg/mL) 1.002 [0.972,1.039] NFL (pg/mL) 0.994 [0.977,1.004]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.001 [0.999,1.004] Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.003 [0.999,1.009] Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.000 [0.996,1.005]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) S100 (pg/mL) 0.403 [0.047,3.219] S100 (pg/mL) 1.286 [0.017,113.076] S100 (pg/mL) 0.322 [0.02,4.771]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 1) α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.004 [1,1.011] α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.016 [0.999,1.051] α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.003 [0.997,1.01]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) Aβ42/40 0.000 [0,0.01349] Aβ42/40    Aβ42/40   
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) p-Tau (pg/mL) 1.037 [0.981,1.108] p-Tau (pg/mL) 1.158 [1.032,1.351] p-Tau (pg/mL) 0.954 [0.797,1.135]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) t-Tau (pg/mL) 1.004 [0.997,1.012] t-Tau (pg/mL) 1.020 [1.005,1.041] t-Tau (pg/mL) 0.996 [0.977,1.015]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) GFAP (pg/mL) 1.083 [0.963,1.234] GFAP (pg/mL) 1.355 [0.961,2.05] GFAP (pg/mL) 1.065 [0.934,1.229]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.005 [0.997,1.013] YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.006 [0.991,1.022] YKL40 (pg/mL) 1.006 [0.996,1.016]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.112 [0.939,1.322] TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.231 [0.906,1.719] TREM2 (pg/mL) 1.036 [0.831,1.294]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) IL6 (pg/mL) 1.072 [0.904,1.268] IL6 (pg/mL) 1.371 [0.954,2.11] IL6 (pg/mL) 0.993 [0.783,1.217]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) NFL (pg/mL) 1.009 [0.996,1.023] NFL (pg/mL) 1.008 [0.985,1.032] NFL (pg/mL) 1.012 [0.993,1.031]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.002 [1,1.003] Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.004 [1.001,1.008] Neurogranin (pg/mL) 1.002 [0.999,1.005]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) S100 (pg/mL) 0.505 [0.094,2.614] S100 (pg/mL) 0.548 [0.028,8.746] S100 (pg/mL) 0.476 [0.051,4.062]
CS (degree 3+4 vs degree 2) α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.000 [0.999,1.001] α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 1.001 [1,1.004] α-Synuclein (pg/mL) 0.999 [0.996,1.001]