Skip to main content

Table. 1 Characteristics of the sample and group comparisons of potential risk factors across degrees of Perivascular Spaces in Basal Ganglia and Centrum Semiovale Regions. Legend: N, sample size; n, count of individuals for each categorical variable; SD, standard deviation; ePVS, enlarged perivascular spaces; BG, basal ganglia; CS, centrum semiovale; CAIDE, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Incidence of Dementia; BMI, body mass index; WMH, white matter hyperintensities; GM, gray matter volume; TIV, total intracranial volume

From: Perivascular spaces are associated with tau pathophysiology and synaptic dysfunction in early Alzheimer’s continuum

   BG-ePVS CS-ePVS
  N Mean (SD) or n (%) Degree 1 (n = 162) Degree 2 + Degree 3 (n = 160) p value Degree 1 (n = 90) Degree 2 (n = 147) Degree 3 + 4 (n = 85) p value
Sex, n (%) 322     0.156     0.549
Male   118 (36.6%) 66 (40.7%) 52 (32.5%)   35 (38.9%) 56 (38.1%) 27 (31.8%)  
Female   204 (63.4%) 96 (59.3%) 108 (67.5%)   55 (61.1%) 91 (61.9%) 58 (68.2%)  
Age (years) 322 60.7 (4.69) 59.4 (4.67) 62.0 (4.37)  < 0.001 59.8 (4.76) 60.5 (4.62) 62.0 (4.50) 0.006
APOE-ε4 allele status, n (%) 322     0.182     0.643
Non-carriers   156 (48.4%) 72 (44.4%) 84 (52.5%)   43 (47.8%) 75 (51.0%) 38 (44.7%)  
Carriers   166 (51.6%) 90 (55.6%) 76 (47.5%)   47 (52.2%) 72 (49.0%) 47 (55.3%)  
Education (years) 318 13.4 (3.50) 13.6 (3.39) 13.2 (3.61) 0.346 13.3 (3.22) 13.8 (3.50) 12.9 (3.76) 0.188
Diabetes, n (%) 304     0.531     0.161
No   294 (96.7%) 141 (95.9%) 153 (97.5%)   77 (93.9%) 137 (98.6%) 80 (96.4%)  
Yes   10 (3.29%) 6 (4.08%) 4 (2.55%)   5 (6.10%) 2 (1.44%) 3 (3.61%)  
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 304     0.406     0.551
No   159 (52.3%) 81 (55.1%) 78 (49.7%)   47 (57.3%) 71 (51.1%) 41 (49.4%)  
Yes   145 (47.7%) 66 (44.9%) 79 (50.3%)   35 (42.7%) 68 (48.9%) 42 (50.6%)  
BMI (kg/m2) 322 27.0 (4.16) 27.5 (4.34) 26.4 (3.91) 0.014 27.8 (4.64) 26.8 (3.72) 26.5 (4.27) 0.077
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 321 133 (15.9) 131 (14.9) 135 (16.4) 0.007 131 (14.9) 133 (15.2) 135 (17.7) 0.228
Diastolic Blood Pressure(mmHg) 321 75.4 (9.89) 75.7 (9.56) 75.1 (10.2) 0.541 74.1 (9.80) 75.1 (9.80) 77.2 (9.97) 0.100
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 292 204 (30.8) 204 (29.1) 204 (32.4) 0.871 205 (32.3) 203 (32.1) 203 (27.2) 0.886
Physical Activity, n (%) 288     0.089     0.326
Non-active   55 (19.1%) 20 (14.6%) 35 (23.2%)   12 (15.8%) 24 (17.8%) 19 (24.7%)  
Active   233 (80.9%) 117 (85.4%) 116 (76.8%)   64 (84.2%) 111 (82.2%) 58 (75.3%)  
CAIDE score (0–15) 286 6.00 [4.00;7.00] 5.00 [4.00;7.00] 6.00 [4.00;7.00] 0.129 5.00 [4.00;7.00] 5.00 [4.00;6.00] 6.00 [4.75;7.00] 0.089
Total GM (mm3) 278 588,244 (49,789) 597,109 (47,771) 580,229 (50,376) 0.004 584,964 (48,140) 590,616 (50,255) 587,617 (51,210) 0.726
WMH (ml) 257 3.33 (16.6) 1.43 (1.72) 5.08 (22.9) 0.068 1.39 (1.39) 4.83 (23.7) 2.48 (2.84) 0.346
TIV (mm3) 278 1,438,565 (171,034) 1,456,206 (166,776) 1,422,616 (173,823) 0.101 1,427,412 (163,677) 1,442,693 (179,156) 1,443,534 (165,757) 0.792