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Table 5 Dementia risk scores in relation to brain pathology markers

From: Multidomain interventions: state-of-the-art and future directions for protocols to implement precision dementia risk reduction. A user manual for Brain Health Services—part 4 of 6

Risk score Study design Biomarkers Findings
CAIDE
 Vuorinen et al., 2015 [43] Cohort, general population, Finland
N = 181
Mean age, 50 years
Follow-up, 30 years
Brain cortical thickness, white matter lesions, medial temporal atrophy on MRI Higher score associated with higher medial temporal atrophy, white matter lesions, and lower cortical thickness two to three decades later.
 Enache et al., 2016 [44] Cohort, memory clinic patients SCI and MCI, Sweden
N = 724
Age, > 40 years
Follow-up, cross-sectional
AD-related CSF markers Higher score associated with CSF markers of neurodegeneration (↓Aβ and ↑total tau).
 Stephen et al., 2017 [45] Cohort, at-risk for dementia, Finland
N = 132
Age, 60–77 years
Follow-up, 20–30 years
Brain volumes and cortical thickness, medial temporal atrophy, white matter lesions on MRI, and amyloid positivity on PiB-PET Higher score associated with lower volumes and cortical thickness, medial temporal atrophy, and white matter lesions but not with amyloid on PiB-PET.
 Hooshmand et al., 2018 [46] Cohort, without dementia at baseline, Finland
N = 149
Age, ≥ 85 years
Follow-up, 10 years
Brain pathology at autopsy Higher score associated with increased cerebral infractions.
 O’Brien et al., 2019 [47] Cohort, middle-aged healthy adults, UK
N = 149
Age, 40–59 years
Follow-up, 2 years
Rate of change in brain and ventricular volumes on MRI Higher score associated with progressive brain atrophy rates.
ANU-ADRI
 Cherbuin et al., 2019 [48] Cohort, individuals free of dementia, Australia
N = 461
Age, 60–64 years
Follow-up, 12 years
Total and regional brain volumes on MRI Higher score was associated with lower cortical gray matter particularly in the default mode network.
  1. amyloid-beta, AD Alzheimer’s disease, ANU-ADRI Australian National University Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Index, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, PiB-PET Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography, MCI mild cognitive impairment, SCI subjective cognitive impairment