|Duration||Sample size (n)||
Age of study population|
|AChEI||Burns et al., 2009 ||6 months||407||83.7/83.5||8.8/9.1||
24 mg/day target dose (12 mg twice a day). Dose reduction to 8 mg twice a day to improve tolerability was possible.
|MDS-ADL, SIB||Significantly improved cognitive function. No significant improvement in the co-primary outcome of ADLs.|
|Tariot et al., 2001 ||24 weeks||208||85.4/85.9||14.4||
10 mg/day target dose. Dose reduction to improve tolerability was possible.
|CDR-SoB, MMSE, NPI-NH, PSMS||Donepezil-treated patients improved or maintained in cognition. Impact of donepezil on BPSD remains unclear.|
Petracca et al., 1996 |
|2 × 6 week treatment period, separated by a 2-week wash-out period||24||71.5/72.4||21.0/22.1||
Clomipramine: 100 mg/day target dose.|
|FIM, HAM-D, MMSE||Clomipramine was significantly more effective in lowering depression scores compared to placebo. No changes in ADL measures.|
|Petracca et al., 2001 ||6 weeks||41||70.2/71.3||23.2||
40 mg/day target dose.
|CGI-I, FIM, HAM-A, HAM-D, MMSE||No significant differences in treatment effects on depression comparing fluoxetine and placebo.|
|Anticonvulsants||Olin et al., 2001 ||6 weeks||21||74.7||5.9/6.1||
Carbamazepine: 400 mg/day target dose.|
|BPRS, CGI-I, HAM-D, IADL, MMSE, PSMS||Modest clinical benefit in global impression and a particular benefit for hostile behaviour in carbamazepine-treated patients was shown.|
|Porsteinsson et al., 2001 ||6 weeks||56||85.3/84.7||7.0/6.7||
Carbamazepine: 375 mg/day starting dose, followed by flexible dose regimen.|
|BPRS, CERAD BRSD, CGI-I, MMSE, OAS, PSMS||Possible short-term efficacy of valproate in reduction of agitation in patients with dementia in the nursing home.|
Tariot et al., 1994 |
|2 × 5 week treatment period, separated by a 2 week wash-out period||25||84.5||7.6||Carbamazepine: 100–800 mg/day based on physician’s review.||BPRS, CGI-I, DMAS, MMSE, OAS, PSMS||Short-term therapy with Carbamazepine may have beneficial effects on BPSD in patients with dementia and agitation (significant reduction in BPRS total score).|
|Tariot et al., 1998 ||6 weeks||51||87.1/84.8||3.9/8.3||
Carbamazepine: 100 mg/day starting dose, increased by 50 mg/day every 2–4 days; in the absence of toxicity a serum level of 5–8 μg/ml was maintained.|
|BPRS, CERAD BRSD, CGI-I, MMSE, PSMS||Carbamazepine showed significant short-term efficacy for agitation. Significant reduction of the BPRS agitation and hostility factor compared with placebo.|
|Antipsychotics||Tariot et al., 2006 ||10 weeks||284||
100 mg/day target dose, maximum dose of 600 mg/day according to clinical response and tolerability
2 mg/day target dose, maximum dose of 12 mg/day according to clinical response and tolerability.
|AIMS, BPRS, CGI-S, MMSE, MOSES, NPI-NH, PSMS, SAS||No significant improvement in BPRS total scores. Inconsistent significant improvement in some parts of BPSD for haloperidol treated patients. Tolerability was better for quetiapine compared with haloperidol.|
|Antipsychotics/antidepressants||Teranishi et al., 2013 ||8 weeks||82||
Flexible oral dosing regimen.|
0.5–2 mg/day target dose.
25–200 mg/day target dose.
Yokukansan: 2.5–7.5 g/day target dose.
|DIEPSS, FIM, MMSE, NPI-NH||
NPI-NH scores decreased in all three groups with no significant differences.|
Tolerability for yokukansan and quetiapine seemed to be more favourable than for risperidone.