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Table 3 CSF biomarker levels by Aβ group

From: Cognitively unimpaired individuals with a low burden of Aβ pathology have a distinct CSF biomarker profile

  Definition 1
(n = 318)
Definition 2
(n = 313*)
Definition 3
(n = 318)
Aβ- Low burden Aβ+   Aβ- Low burden Aβ+   Aβ- Low burden Aβ+  
CSF- CL < 30
(n = 205, 64.5%)
CSF+ CL < 30
(n = 88, 27.7%)
CSF+ CL > 30
(n = 25, 7.86%)
P value CSF- VR-
(n = 202, 64.5%)
CSF+ VR-
(n = 72, 23.0%)
CSF+ VR+
(n = 39, 12.5%)
P value CL < 20
(n = 281, 88.4%)
20–40 CL
(n = 18, 5.66%)
CL > 40
(n = 19, 6.0%)
P value
p-tau (pg/ml) 13.9 (4.19) 16.5 (5.97)1 25.9 (6.94)1 <0.0001 13.8 (4.17) 16.2 (6.03)2 23.1 (7.40)1 <0.0001 14.6 (4.97) 19.6 (7.13)2 25.3 (7.08)1 <0.0001
t-tau (pg/ml) 176 (48.7) 202 (64.9)3 293 (71.6)1 <0.0001 176 (48.5) 199 (66.1)2 267 (75.1)1 <0.0001 183 (55.9) 239 (85.4)2 280 (65.8)1 <0.0001
NfL (pg/ml) 75.3 (23.6) 83.6 (23.4)4 114 (31.1)1 <0.0001 75.4 (23.7) 82.3 (22.9) 105 (31.4)1 <0.0001 77.4 (23.6) 98.5 (31.2) 112 (33.4)3 0.0004
Neurogranin (pg/ml) 722 (252) 802 (325)4 1103 (311)1 <0.0001 719 (251) 794 (330) 1019 (324)1 <0.0001 747 (282) 951 (402)4 1003 (239)2 0.0009
sTREM2 (ng/ml) 7.58 (1.93) 7.75 (2.15) 9.39 (2.83)2 0.006 7.57 (1.93) 7.74 (2.22) 8.83 (2.63) 0.053 7.63 (2.00) 8.84 (2.74) 8.79 (2.66) 0.065
YKL40 (ng/ml) 138 (44.8) 145 (49.8) 206 (58.5)1 0.0002 137 (44.6) 143 (51.4) 187 (58.5)3 0.002 140 (46.6) 170 (55.1) 200 (64.1)2 0.004
GFAP (ng/ml) 7.09 (2.13) 7.68 (2.32) 9.68 (2.58)3 0.001 7.08 (2.14) 7.67 (2.39) 9.00 (2.58)2 0.011 7.24 (2.22) 8.51 (1.91) 9.71 (2.74)2 0.004
IL6 (pg/ml) 3.86 (1.33) 3.81 (1.54) 3.97 (1.37) 0.33 3.87 (1.33) 3.90 (1.58) 3.72 (1.39) 0.89 3.86 (1.38) 3.66 (1.58) 3.94 (1.37) 0.56
S100B (ng/ml) 0.98 (0.20) 1.06 (0.26) 1.07 (0.25) 0.054 0.98 (0.20) 1.05 (0.25) 1.09 (0.27) 0.044 1.00 (0.21) 1.16 (0.33) 1.03 (0.18) 0.093
α-synuclein (pg/ml) 189 (80.9) 190 (62.5) 249 (87.3)2 0.005 189 (81.2) 184 (60.9) 239 (79.2)3 0.001 190 (76.6) 210 (82.3) 237 (85.1) 0.069
  1. Data are expressed as mean (M) and standard deviation (SD). One-way ANCOVA adjusted by age and sex, followed by Dunnett-corrected post hoc comparisons, was used to compare CSF biomarker values between groups. The P values indicated in the last column refer to the group main effect. Significant P values are marked in bold. All P values remained significant after FDR multiple comparison correction, except S100B in definition 2 (P = 0.055). “Low burden” refers to “low burden of Aβ pathology”. Abbreviations: amyloid-β, CL Centiloid, CSF cerebrospinal fluid, p-tau phosphorylated tau, t-tau total tau, NfL neurofilament light, S100B S100 calcium-binding protein B, sTREM2 soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), GFAP glial fibrillary acidic protein, IL6 interleukin 6, VR visual read, YKL40 Chitinase-3-like protein 1
  2. *In definition 2, we included 313 participants because 2 participants did not have Aβ PET visual read assessment available and 3 additional participants had a discrepant CSF and visual read assessment (negative CSF Aβ42/40 ratio but positive visual read). Participants with this biomarker profile do not fall in any of the definition 2 categories
  3. 1P < 0.0001 vs Aβ- group
  4. 2P < 0.01 vs Aβ- group
  5. 3P < 0.001 vs Aβ- group
  6. 4P < 0.05 vs Aβ- group