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Table 3 Driving indicators’ descriptive statistics and effect sizes using Cohen’s d

From: GPS driving: a digital biomarker for preclinical Alzheimer disease

  Without preclinical AD (n = 75) With preclinical AD (n = 64) Cohen’s da
TripDist, km 8.1 ± 2.6 7.9 ± 2.8 0.07
TotalDist, km 891.5 ± 371.4 787.5 ± 368.8 0.28
nTrips 113.7 ± 40.4 103.3 ± 41.9 0.25
Rg, km 67.0 ± 98.8 44.0 ± 63.5 0.27
S 3.97 ± 0.5 3.84 ± 0.5 0.26
nNightTrip 53.2 ± 19.4 46.43 ± 19.7 −0.35
nUniqDest 38.2 ± 13.0 34.8 ± 13.9 0.25
nHardBrake 0.027 ± 0.04 0.022 ± 0.02 0.15
nSuddenAcc 0.039 ± 0.05 0.034 ± 0.03 0.12
OverV 0.07 ± 0.08 0.06 ± 0.05 −0.15
UnderV 0.20 ± 0.12 0.23 ± 0.15 −0.22
avgV, m/s 8.03 ± 1.87 8.04 ± 1.83 −0.01
avgA, m/s2 2.84 ± 0.35 2.79 ± 0.41 0.15
avgJ, m/s3 1.46 ± 0.16 1.39 ± 0.20 0.39
  1. aEffect sizes (Cohen’s d) of 0.2 are considered small, 0.5–0.6 are considered medium, and 0.8 are considered large
  2. Abbreviations: TripDist average trip distance, TotalDist total travelled distance, nTrips number of trips, RG radius of gyration, S entropy, nNightTrip number of night trips, nUniqDest number of unique destinations, nHardBrake number of hard brakes per mile, nSuddenAcc number of sudden accelerations per mile, OverV overspeed, UnderV underspeed, avgV average speed, avgA average acceleration, avgJ average jerk