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Table 4 Incoherence (clinician-rated) and correlations (p<0.05) with speech variables, ranked by correlation coefficient (Spearman’s |ρ|)

From: Correlating natural language processing and automated speech analysis with clinician assessment to quantify speech-language changes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s dementia

Variable type Variable description ρ F1 F2
Syntactic Use of past tense verb phrases with noun phrases 0.51 0.69  
Lexical Average age of acquisition score of all words 0.47   − 0.64
Acoustic Speech rate − 0.47   
Acoustic Average word duration 0.47 0.64  
Lexical Average age of acquisition score of nouns 0.46   − 0.65
Lexical Average valence score of nouns − 0.43   0.79
Acoustic Skewness of the second derivative of the 4th MFCC − 0.42 − 0.87  
Semantic Proportion of subject words used − 0.42   
Syntactic Use of 3rd person singular present verb phrases with prepositional phrases − 0.41   
Acoustic Kurtosis of the second derivative of the 4th MFCC 0.41 0.98  
Syntactic Use of prepositional phrases with noun phrases − 0.40   
Acoustic Skewness of the second derivative of the log energy − 0.39 − 0.96  
Lexical Use of comparative adjectives 0.38   
Acoustic Kurtosis of the second derivative of the log energy 0.38 0.95  
Semantic Semantic similarity of description to picture content (max cosine distance, 300-dim word vectors) 0.38   
Semantic Average valence score of all words − 0.37   0.82
Syntactic Use of singular present verb phrases with prepositional phrases − 0.37   
Syntactic Use of verb phrases with noun phrases 0.37   
Semantic Proportion of subjects in picture described − 0.37   
Lexical Average arousal score of nouns − 0.36   
  1. Columns F1 and F2 indicate which variables were assigned to each factor, and the factor loading scores. Variables that do not have values in columns F1 and F2 are correlated with incoherence but were not included in a factor based on the exploratory factor analysis