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Table 3 Word-finding difficulty (clinician-rated) and correlations (p<0.05) with speech variables, ranked by correlation coefficient (Spearman’s |ρ|)

From: Correlating natural language processing and automated speech analysis with clinician assessment to quantify speech-language changes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s dementia

Variable type Variable description ρ F1 F2 F3 F4
Lexical Average word length − 0.74     0.78
Acoustic Speech rate − 0.68     
Acoustic Average word duration 0.68   0.62   
Acoustic Number of unfilled pauses 0.63 − 0.68    
Acoustic Number of long pauses 0.48 − 0.87    
Lexical Use of past tense verbs 0.47     
Acoustic Variance of the number of zero crossings − 0.46    − 0.81  
Acoustic Skewness of the number of zero crossings 0.46    0.91  
Acoustic Mean number of zero crossings − 0.46    − 0.79  
Acoustic Kurtosis of the number of zero crossings 0.46    0.91  
Acoustic Total duration of short pauses − 0.46 0.63    
Lexical Ratio of subordinate to coordinate words 0.46     
Lexical Average word frequency 0.43     − 0.79
Acoustic Total duration of long pauses 0.43 − 0.87    
Syntactic Use of noun phrases with determiners and nouns 0.42   0.67   
Acoustic Number of short pauses − 0.42 0.72    
Syntactic Use of conjunctive verb phrases − 0.41     
Acoustic Mean pause duration 0.39 − 0.66    
Lexical Use of demonstrative words 0.39     
Syntactic Use of singular present verb phrases with prepositional phrases − 0.39     
Syntactic Number of coordinate phrases per clause − 0.39     0.72
Lexical Number of words 0.39     − 0.64
Syntactic Use of coordinate phrases − 0.38     
Acoustic Skewness of the second derivative of the 4th MFCC − 0.38   − 0.85   
Lexical Average dominance score of all words − 0.37     
Acoustic Kurtosis of the second derivative of the 4th MFCC 0.37   0.94   
Lexical Use of comparative adjectives 0.37     
Syntactic Use of past tense verb phrases with noun phrases 0.37   0.73   
Acoustic Mean of the first derivative of the 10th MFCC − 0.37     
Lexical Average dominance scores of nouns − 0.36     
Syntactic Use of adjective phrases − 0.36     
  1. Columns F1 to F4 indicate which variables were assigned to each factor and the factor loading scores. Variables that do not have values in any of the columns correlated with word-finding difficulty but were not included in a factor based on the EFA