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Table 1 Clinician consensus table of speech and language characteristics

From: Correlating natural language processing and automated speech analysis with clinician assessment to quantify speech-language changes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s dementia

Characteristic Clinical features
Word-finding difficulty Reduction in content words, circumlocution, and false starts [19]
Pauses while searching for words [12]
Fluency (rate, phrase length, amount of hesitation)
Revisions (repetitions of complete words or phrases/elaborations), and indefinite terms (fillers)
Incoherence Coherence is the orderly flow of information within discourse (graph features), and a marker of how well discourse is connected within words, sentences, and overall speech (local and global coherence) [20,21,22,23]
Incoherence is characterized by disorganized speech, derailment or sudden topic shifts, tangentiality, flight of ideas, or word salad [13, 18, 24, 25].
Perseveration Repetition of word or phrase even after the stimulus for the behavior (word or phrase) has been taken away [18, 26]
Persistence of behavior (word or phrase) despite repeated failure
Intrusion: inappropriate repetition of prior responses after intervening stimuli [27]
Errors in Speech Phonetic errors (omissions, additions, substitutions, distortions) [28]
Stuttering [18]
Sequences of phonemic approximation