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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of community-dwelling older patients with chronic pain with or without ADRD stratified by cohort

From: Quality of opioid prescribing in older adults with or without Alzheimer disease and related dementia

Baseline characteristica Patients with chronic pain, %   Opioid-naive patients, %   Patients with neuropathic pain, %   Patients with opioid prescription, %  
With ADRD Without ADRD P-valued With ADRD Without ADRD P-valued With ADRD Without ADRD P-valued With ADRD Without ADRD P-valued
Total no. 75,258 435,870 48,182 304,009 9775 64,692 27,801 197,886
Age, y
 Mean (SD) 79.3 (10.4) 70.9 (9.4) < .001 80.4 (10.1) 72.1 (8.8) < .001 76.5 (10.1) 69.7 (9.3) < .001 77.8 (10.6) 69.2 (9.8) < .001
 50–64 9.4 19.3   7.5 13.1   12.5 23.2   11.9 27.2  
 65–74 19.3 48.0 17.1 50.9 26.2 48.0 22.5 44.6
 75–84 36.3 24.7 36.4 27.0 38.1 22.6 36.1 21.7
  ≥ 85 35.0 8.0 38.9 8.9 23.1 6.1 29.5 6.5
Female 71.1 63.1 < .001 69.5 62.4 < .001 67.3 62.0 < .001 73.5 64.0 < .001
Race/ethnicity
 White 78.7 82.0 < .001 78.0 82.6 < .001 76.8 82.1 < .001 79.4 81.2 < .001
 Black 11.7 10.4 11.3 9.1 12.4 10.3 12.3 12.3
 Othersb 9.6 7.6 10.6 8.3 10.8 7.6 8.2 6.4
US region
 Northeast 21.0 18.9 < .001 24.7 20.9 < .001 20.7 19.6 < .001 15.1 15.0 < .001
 Midwest 21.7 24.5 21.5 24.7 19.9 23.9 22.0 24.3
 South 40.1 38.4 36.8 36.1 42.3 39.0 45.6 42.8
 West or other regions 17.2 18.2 17.1 18.3 17.1 17.5 17.2 17.8
Low-income subsidy 44.0 34.5 < .001 41.2 28.5 < .001 46.6 35.7 < .001 47.9 42.3 < .001
Tobacco or alcohol use 6.7 6.5 .057 4.6 4.1 < .001 7.3 6.7 .021 9.3 9.5 .391
Drug use disorder 2.3 1.6 < .001 1.1 0.6 < .001 3.0 1.8 < .001 3.9 2.7 < .001
Index pain diagnosisc
 Musculoskeletal 88.8 86.7 < .001 89.4 87.4 < .001 24.5 19.7 < .001 88.0 86.3 < .001
 Neuropathic 13.0 14.8 < .001 12.2 14.3 < .001 100.0 100.0 NA 14.2 15.2 < .001
 Idiopathic 2.4 2.0 < .001 1.2 0.8 < .001 1.2 0.7 < .001 4.1 3.6 < .001
Comorbidity affecting pain treatment
 Cardiovascular disease 85.4 68.1 < .001 83.3 65.0 < .001 86.8 70.3 < .001 87.5 71.2 < .001
 Pulmonary condition 52.9 40.7 < .001 47.9 35.9 < .001 53.5 41.0 < .001 59.2 46.5 < .001
 Diabetes 39.8 34.3 < .001 38.0 32.4 < .001 59.4 47.7 < .001 42.6 36.7 < .001
 Mental disorder 37.9 17.6 < .001 32.9 13.2 < .001 37.5 18.8 < .001 43.5 22.7 < .001
 Gastrointestinal tract disorder 27.2 13.7 < .001 23.8 11.4 < .001 26.8 14.2 < .001 30.6 15.9 < .001
 Urinary tract infection 24.6 9.4 < .001 22.1 8.1 < .001 22.3 10.0 < .001 26.9 10.7 < .001
 Kidney disease 21.8 11.2 < .001 19.3 9.6 < .001 24.3 13.1 < .001 24.7 13.0 < .001
 Fall or fracture 19.5 5.5 < .001 14.7 3.2 < .001 13.8 4.5 < .001 22.7 7.0 < .001
 Neurodegenerative disease 13.7 3.5 < .001 12.6 2.7 < .001 15.9 4.7 < .001 15.0 4.3 < .001
 Liver disease 6.1 4.3 < .001 5.2 3.5 < .001 6.6 4.6 < .001 6.9 5.1 < .001
Health care utilization
 Any hospitalization stay 25.0 8.2 < .001 20.5 5.1 < .001 21.4 7.9 < .001 28.7 10.6 < .001
 Any ED visit 28.3 14.0 < .001 21.9 9.2 < .001 26.9 14.3 < .001 33.5 18.1 < .001
 Any hospital surgical procedure 6.9 3.3 < .001 4.4 1.3 < .001 5.3 2.6 < .001 8.7 4.3 < .001
  1. Abbreviations: ADRD Alzheimer disease and related dementias, ED emergency department
  2. aDefined as the 6 months prior to the date of a randomly selected chronic pain diagnosis for each patient
  3. bIncluded Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native American individuals
  4. cMeasured as primary or secondary diagnosis as the index diagnosis
  5. dStatistical comparisons and P-values were calculated using t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables