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Table 2 The effects of an exergame intervention and a music intervention on measured outcomes

From: The efficacy of exergaming in people with major neurocognitive disorder residing in long-term care facilities: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Variable Intervention (n = 23) Control (n = 22) P F η2p
  Pre test (mean ± SD) Post test (mean ± SD) Pre test (mean ± SD) Post test (mean ± SD)    
SPPB 5.5 ± 1.9 8.5 ± 2.5 5.2 ± 2.9 3.8 ± 2.5 < 0.001* 72.1 0.64
Gait speed (m/s) 0.6 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.3 0.6 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 < 0.001* 29.3 0.41
SRTT (ms) 2827.1 ± 1884.1 1426.6 ± 333.1 4551.1 ± 4243.6 5292.9 ± 4893.4 < 0.001* 38.8 0.51
MoCA 9.4 ± 4.1 12.1 ± 5.2 8.5 ± 5.2 5.7 ± 4.0 < 0.001* 24.4 0.38
NPI 11.4 ± 12.8 6.6 ± 11.4 8.4 ± 7.4 16.1 ± 15.1 0.165 2.0 0.05
CSDD 7.0 ± 6.4 3.0 ± 4.4 5.3 ± 4.5 9.3 ± 6.7 < 0.001* 28.8 0.43
DQoL 2.7 ± 0.7 3.5 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 0.9 0.012 6.9 0.16
ADL 9.0 ± 2.1 9.0 ± 2.3 10.1 ± 2.8 11.4 ± 3.4 0.008 7.7 0.16
  1. *Significant when P < 0.00625 (0.05/8 comparisons) using Quade’s non-parametric analyses of covariance with post test scores as dependent variables, groups as independent variables, and baseline scores as covariates. ADL, activities of daily living (range = 6 to 24 with higher scores indicating higher dependency in activities of daily living); CSDD, Cornell scale for depression in dementia (range = 0 to 38, and a score below 6 is associated with absence of depressive symptoms, and scores above 10 indicate probable major depression); DQoL, Dementia Quality of Life (scores range from 1 (poor QoL) to 5 (excellent QoL)); MoCA, Montréal Cognitive Assessment (total scores range from 0 to 30 with lower scores indicating more cognitive impairment); NPI, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (12-item score with a range of 0 to 12 per item); SPPB, Short Physical Performance Battery (total scores range from 0 to 12 with lower scores indicating a higher risk and a score lower than 10 indicates one or more mobility limitations); SRTT, step reaction time test (lower values indicate a faster reaction time)