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Table 2 Demographic, clinical and biomarker characteristics of prodromal AD subtypes at baseline

From: Data-driven FDG-PET subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease-related neurodegeneration

  Prodromal AD group, no hypometabolism (S0) Prodromal AD group, limbic-predominant (S1) Prodromal AD group, typical (S2) P value, global comparison (S0, S1 and S2) Pair-wise comparisons
S0 vs S1 S0 vs S2 S1 vs S2
Demographics
n (%) 57 (26.3%) 108 (49.8%) 49 (22.6%)     
 Age, years 68.4 (6.6) 76.1 (5.7) 71.7 (6.2) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.009 < 0.001
 Sex, female (%) 60% 35% 41% 0.01 0.024 0.226 1
 Education, years 16.2 (2.8) 15.7 (3.0) 16.4 (2.6) 0.344    
Cognition
 MMSE 28.2 (1.8) 27.6 (1.8) 27.3 (1.8) 0.053    
 ADNI-MEM 0.57 (0.63) 0.05 (0.61) − 0.06 (0.65) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.602
 ADNI-EF 0.76 (0.91) 0.00 (0.77) 0.15 (1.01) 0.018 < 0.001 0.001 0.542
 ADNI-DIFF − 0.19 (0.83) 0.05 (0.78) − 0.21 (0.77) 0.616    
 ADNI-VS 0.08 (0.65) − 0.06 (0.76) − 0.21 (0.67) 0.135    
 ADNI-Lan 0.6 (0.7) − 0.05 (0.74) 0.29 (0.79) 0.007 < 0.001 0.062 0.025
Biomarkers
 APOE ε4 (%) 68% 62% 77% 0.163    
 AV45-PET SUVR 1.31 (0.17) 1.39 (0.17) 1.43 (0.15) 0.004 0.015 0.002 0.238
 CSF Aβ, pg/ml 921 (437) 736 (237) 672 (214) 0.002 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.417
 CSF t-tau, pg/ml 315 (134) 337 (137) 357 (144) 0.123    
 CSF p-tau, pg/ml 31 (15) 34 (16) 37 (16) 0.096    
 HV 4.86 (0.45) 4.53 (0.51) 4.57 (0.41) 0.009 < 0.001 0.005 1
 CTV 89.87 (5.45) 83.19 (6.48) 82.93 (5.35) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 1
 HV:CTV ratio 54.26 (6.07) 54.57 (6.27) 55.24 (5.56) 0.344    
 WMH 4.9 (5.0) 11.3 (12.8) 6.8 (6.5) 0.172    
  1. Cortical-predominant subtype of prodromal AD group (n = 3) not included. Values for variables are presented as percentages (for gender and APOE ε4 genotype) or means with standard deviation in parentheses. Missing values are excluded (for numbers of missing values per subtype, see Supplementary Table 8). In case of significant main effects, subtypes were compared with the post hoc pairwise t tests with FDR correction. Please note that composite cognitive scores have arbitrary units on scales centred on the original test samples used to develop these scores (including patients and healthy controls) [18,19,20]
  2. S0 no hypometabolism subtype, S1 limbic-predominant subtype, S2 typical subtype, HV hippocampal grey matter volume scaled to total intracranial volume, CTV cortical composite grey matter volume scaled to total intracranial volume
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