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Table 4 Cardiovascular risk factor data for all randomized patients, showing mean baseline values and changes at week 12 (data shown by treatment period, by treatment sequence, and for all patients)

From: Randomized crossover trial of a modified ketogenic diet in Alzheimer’s disease

  First treatment period Second treatment period All patients Treatment effect
Ketogenic-usual diet (n = 13) Usual-ketogenic diet (n = 13) Ketogenic-usual diet (n = 13) Usual-ketogenic diet (n = 13) Ketogenic diet (n = 26) Usual diet (n = 26)
Weight (kg)
Baseline 86.1 ± 18.4 75.5 ±  11.5 85.2 ±  17.5 75.0 ±  10.8 80.5 ±  15.8 80.4 ±  15.4 −2.62 ±  3.29 (P = 0.0017)
Change at week 12 −2.54 ±  3.66 −0.50 ±  1.82 + 1.29 ±  1.39 − 1.90 ±  1.22 −2.22 ±  2.69 + 0.40 ±  1.83
Body mass index
Baseline 27.8 ±  5.9 26.6 ±  2.7 27.6 ±  5.5 26.5 ±  2.7 27.1 ±  4.5 27.1 ±  4.3 − 0.95 ±  1.35 (P < 0.001)
Change at week 12 − 0.95 ±  1.40 − 0.17 ±  0.63 + 0.44 ±  0.50 − 0.68 ±  0.42 − 0.81 ±  1.02 + 0.14 ±  0.64
HbA1C (mmol/mol)
Baseline 34.4 ±  3.2 38.5 ±  6.6 35.7 ±  3.0 40.5 ±  9.3 37.5 ±  7.5 37.1 ±  5.2 − 2.73 ±  5.17 (P = 0.0047)
Change at week 12 − 0.88 ±  1.27 + 0.23 ±  1.59 0.00 ±  2.00 −4.35 ±  7.00 −2.61 ±  5.24 + 0.12 ±  1.77
Triglycerides (mmol/L)
Baseline 2.45 ±  1.19 2.00 ±  0.89 2.20 ±  0.82 1.84 ±  0.55 2.15 ±  0.96 2.10 ±  0.84 − 0.32 ±  1.34 (P = 0.20)
Change at week 12 − 0.43 ±  1.18 − 0.06 ±  0.92 + 0.20 ±  0.83 − 0.07 ±  0.66 − 0.25 ±  0.96 + 0.07 ±  0.87
HDL (mmol/L)
Baseline 1.30 ±  0.30 1.49 ±  0.40 1.40 ±  0.34 1.55 ±  0.40 1.43 ±  0.37 1.45 ±  0.37 + 0.36 ±  0.32 (P < 0.001)
Change at week 12 + 0.27 ±  0.26 − 0.02 ±  0.23 − 0.04 ±  0.13 + 0.40 ±  0.28 + 0.33 ±  0.28 −0.03 ±  0.18
LDL (mmol/L)
Baseline 2.68 ± 1.19 2.64 ± 0.88 2.83 ± 1.21 2.65 ±  0.85 2.67 ±  1.01 2.73 ±  1.04 + 0.38 ±  1.06 (P = 0.039)
Change at week 12 + 0.16 ±  0.69 −0.21 ±  0.55 + 0.30 ±  0.56 + 0.69 ±  0.87 + 0.42 ±  0.81 + 0.04 ±  0.61
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)
Baseline 5.08 ± 0.96 5.05 ±  0.95 5.22 ± 1.22 5.02 ±  0.92 5.05 ±  0.92 5.13 ±  1.07 + 0.62 ±  1.23 (P = 0.012)
Change at week 12 + 0.29 ±  0.63 −0.26 ±  0.65 + 0.35 ±  0.50 + 1.04 ±  0.94 + 0.66 ±  0.87 + 0.04 ±  0.65
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation
  2. Regarding withdrawals, regression imputation was used to calculate the value at week 12
  3. Treatment effects and P values refer to the difference between the ketogenic and usual diet mean within-individual change at week 12 (for all patients)
  4. HbA1C glycosylated haemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein
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